• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month
Page
  1. 1
    1
  2. 2
    2
  3. 3
    3
  4. 4
    4
  5. 5
    5
  6. 6
    6
  7. 7
    7
  8. 8
    8
  9. 9
    9
  10. 10
    10
  11. 11
    11
  12. 12
    12

The unification of Italy was one of the most significant events of the period 1850-1870.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

VITTORIO EMANUELE II:MAKER OF HISTORY OR SPECTATOR The international school of Turin Jacopo Namari Candidate number 0016 Table of Contents A. Plan of investigation: pag. 3 B. Summary of evidence: pagg. 3-7 C. Evaluation of sources: pagg. 7-8 D. Analysis: pagg. 8-10 E. Conclusion: pag. 10 VITTORIO EMANUELE II A) * Examine two sources learn about: * Vittorio Emanuele II's personality. * Vittorio Emanuele II's policy and relationship with his ministers. * The Unity of Italy: Vittorio Emanuele II: maker or spectator? B) The unification of Italy was one of the most significant events of the period 1850-1870. The crucial moments of the conquest of the Italian unification were articulated by the initiative of the Vittorio Emanuele II's house of Savoy, led until 1861 by the clear political action of Cavour and then by the right-wing historical governments, which succeeded in taking advantage of the favorable international situation. At first the French were interested in superseding the Austrian hegemony in Italy, which led to a second victorious war of independence. The Prussian defeated Austria and France. This allowed first the conquer of Veneto and Rome, then the domination of the generous democratic initiative of Mazzini and Garibaldi, who had to sacrifice their democratic principles in the name of national unity. Who was Vittorio Emanuele II? His origins are surrounded by mystery; he was born in Turin on 14 March 1820, the son of Carlo Alberto and Maria Theresa of Habsburg- Lorraine. ...read more.

Middle

Besides his desire to be the center of attention in international agreements, Vittorio Emanuele II also had an important role in the Italian home politics thanks also to the spontaneous aggregation of more moderate elements around his figure. As he grew older some aspects of his character worsened. For example his intolerance of etiquette led him to behave strangely. Hunting and associating with people foreign to high society and with women would always remain his favorite pastime. With ministers and Parliament he was one moment condescending, the next irritated. He always tended to overestimate his personal role in the conversations with diplomats and foreign journalists. In fact Vittorio Emanuele II had a smaller power than he thought or pretended he had. The king suddenly died in Rome on 9 January 1878. The historian and journalist Silvio Bertoldi wrote about him: "Vittorio Emanuele II was really popular as no other king of Italy would ever be."2 C) My two main sources for this research on Vittorio Emanuele II of Savoy are: "I Savoia" by Gianni Oliva and "I Savoia Re D'Italia" by Denis Mack Smith. Both books are classics: Gianni Oliva teaches contemporary history at the "Scuola d' Applicazione d' Arma" in Turin and is a well-known scholar of history of military institutions and of the Resistance Because of his kind of education he tends to have a more benevolent opinion of the king, often overlooking some of his faults in his relationship with the ministers. ...read more.

Conclusion

was much higher than that received by the British and the Prussian monarchies, and this although the Italian monarchy was six million lire in debt, in addition to the debts guaranteed by the king's personal properties. To elude the threat of a public verification of his expenses, Vittorio Emanuele II gave up a quarter of his income, but only if payment could be made without publicity by the government. E) To conclude and give a meaning to this research, I think that during his life and political career Vittorio Emanuele II showed a strong personality: he was an ambitious man, wishing to be the center of attention, a great intriguer who, despite his vanity and the inclination to take his ministers' merits, demonstrated to be a lively man and a brave king who well represented unified Italy and, together with Garibaldi, is still today a hero acclaimed by the nation. In the political field he always took part, whether actively or not, in the decisions of his governments, even if his relationship with Parliament and his ministers was often conflicting. Taking advantage of the significant powers bestowed on him by the Constitution, he tended to supersede his ministers' institutional role, but was then reluctant to take the responsibility of his personal initiatives. I do not think that Vittorio Emanuele II can be considered just a spectator of the Italian unification process: indeed, if the roles of figures such as Cavour, Mazzini and Garibaldi were fundamental, without the personal contribution of Vittorio Emanuele the Unification of Italy could not have been realized. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level British History: Monarchy & Politics section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level British History: Monarchy & Politics essays

  1. Describe how Cavour, Garibaldi, Mazzini and Victor Emmanuel II helped to bring about the ...

    The strongest country would be that of Northern Italy which was to include Piedmont, Lombardy, Venice and the papal Adriatic dominions. There would be a Central Italian State with the Pope as leader and Rome as its capital. Naples and Sicily were to be reformed but to remain under the power of the French.

  2. What was the most significant cause of civil strife in England from 1455-61?

    However it does seem that Henry's own irresolution and negligence allowed the development of minor disagreements and transformed bastard feudalism from a vaguely interesting sideshow into an effective and useful weapon for any prospective troublemakers. The most notable of these is quite obviously Richard Duke of York and although there

  1. How significant was the role of individuals in the changing for the poor between ...

    ideas didn't spread outside of New Lanark, the reason for this is that many business men didn't share his ideas and thought of it as a burden to a business. This shows that his impact was minimal in alleviating poverty within Britain, and I believe that he probably actually had

  2. Does Alexander II deserve the title of 'Tsar liberator'?

    on maintaining support of the nobility than engaging in an emancipation that will have the greatest effect on the economy and the serfs themselves. Evidently it is difficult to assess whether Alexander deserves the title of ?Tsar Liberator? without analysis of the effects of emancipation and whether, in relation to

  1. Death is Part of the Process

    The whole place smelled of damp and decay. Graffiti trailed across the plaster walls in incongruously bright colours. He came to the long, narrow balcony. There were five doors. He unhooked the torch from his belt and sent a cone of white light along the rubbish-strewn walkway. He wasn't armed.

  2. Spanish 5th period History.

    Spanish military power was unrivaled, its diplomacy feared, and its literature celebrated. From the golden age came the famous works of Cervantes and Lope de Vega. By the end of this century, however, Spain had mismanaged its wealth and through a series of costly wars and failed economic policies, it was a nation in decline.

  1. Cavour - the unification of Italy under the Sardinian monarchy.

    * Petruccelli della Gattina commented that (opportunist) "Cavour has the talent to assess a situation and the possibilities of exploiting it" * Cavour commented to Castelli, "All plans , all projects are useless, everything depends on an accident." * Luck played a large role in Cavour's success.

  2. How likely was Italian Unification before 1848?

    The lower classes often welcomed back their rulers as the new constitutions or governments offered them little and most of the working class felt immense loyalty to the state and ruler. The thought of being united in a single country was preposterous, a comparable response to if I suggested a Franco-British unification today.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work