• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

To what extent could the Crusades be described as failure within the years 1095-1195?

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

"To what extent could the crusades be described as failures within the years 1095-1195?" Crusades ? religious military expeditions carried out by European Christians with a goal of ?saving? the Holy Land from the Muslim control. The Crusades were one of the most important events in the Medieval. The Crusaders not only included the kings, feudal aristocracy and knights but also other parts of the society such as clergy, servants and ordinary people. People taking the Crusade vow had different reasons to do so: some wanted to get richer, others were looking for adventures and some were following their religious feelings. Thanks to legends, the Crusades were surrounded by halo of romance and grandeur, chivalry and courage. However the stories about brave and gallant knights are exaggerated to a great extent. Moreover, they ?forget? about the fact that although knights had shown the courage and heroism, heard calls from Pope and believed in God?s help they still failed to ?save? the Holy Land. By the end of 1195 the Palestine was under Muslim control. The reasons why this happened to be looked upon in this coursework. The Reasons for the Crusades The Crusades were launched by Popes, who were seen as a legitimate authority who could declare a ?Holy War? and promise God?s forgiveness. Pope and other masterminds of the movement promised the celestial and earthly rewards to those who expose their life in jeopardy for the sake of a sacred cause. Volunteer campaign has been particularly successful, thanks to the religious fervor that reigned in Europe. Whatever the personal reasons to participate (and in many cases, they have played a significant role) warriors had, the soldiers of Christ were convinced they are fighting for a cause. The main cause of the Crusades was the growth of the power of Seljuk empire and the conquest by them in 1070-ies the Middle East and Asia Minor. ...read more.

Middle

In early July 1098 after seven months of siege, the city surrendered. Byzantines and Armenians have helped take the city. Meanwhile, some French crusaders established themselves in Edessa. Baldwin of Boulogne founded the state of his own, extending on both sides of the Euphrates. It was the first crusader state in the east. Later, to the south of it a few more similar states subsequently emerged. After the capture of Antioch, the Crusaders without any obstacles moved along the coast to the south and along the way captured a few port cities. On June 6 1098 Tancred, nephew of Bohemond, finally joined his army in Bethlehem, the birthplace of Jesus. The Knights were on the way to Jerusalem. Jerusalem thoroughly prepared for a siege, there was plenty of food stocks, and to leave the enemy without water, all the wells around the city have been brought into disrepair. Crusaders lacked ladders, battering rams and siege engines for the assault on the city. They had to get themselves around the city of wood and build military equipment. It took a long time and only in July 1099 Crusaders succeeded in taking Jerusalem. They quickly dispersed throughout the city, seizing gold and silver, horses and mules, taking houses. After that, sobbing with joy the warriors went to the tomb of the Savior Jesus Christ and made amends to him. Soon after the capture of Jerusalem, the Crusaders captured most of the eastern Mediterranean coast. At the beginning of XII century the kingdom of Jerusalem was founded. It consisted of the county of Tripoli, the Principality of Antioch, the county of Edessa and of Jerusalem Kingdom. Authorities in these countries were based on a feudal hierarchy. The King of Jerusalem headed it, the other three were considered as the vassals, but in fact are independent. The Church had enormous influence in those states. It also had large land holdings. ...read more.

Conclusion

Soldiers did not have much confidence in his oldest son and so turned back. Only a small number of faithful knights continued their way under the leadership of Duke Frederick. On October 7, they came to Akkonu. Nevertheless, the loss of Emperor had a great influence on whole expedition. It could be said that even if most of the soldiers continued their way, they would still not be able to be as effective as they could be due to loss of Emperor. It could be said that this event almost put a cross on the whole crusade. However the work of French and British saved the expedition. French and British units came from Wesel only in late July 1190g. This happened due to constant discord between French and English. Meanwhile, the German army with the support of the fleet laid siege to Pisa Akkon. In April 1191 French and English fleet arrived in time. Saladin was forced to capitulate and surrender the city. He tried his best to avoid pre-specified redemption, and so the English King Richard I the Lionheart without hesitate ordered the killing of 2,700 Muslim prisoners. Saladin had to ask for a truce. Winners following the King of England moved to the south and went through the Jaffa towards Jerusalem. Kingdom of Jerusalem has been restored, although the Jerusalem still remained in the hands of Muslims. Capital of the kingdom was now Akkon. The Third Crusade is very controversial. Although Muslims had fighted well and even, in some way, helped to the death of German Emperor they still had to capitulate. In fact, the Crusaders won here as even the Jerusalem Kingdom was restored. However it should be noted that actually Jerusalem still stayed in the hands of Muslims, whereas the goal was to recapture Jerusalem. The war, usually, is said to be lost if the main goal is not achieved and as we can see it is the case here. Therefore we can argue that although the Third Crusade was not a total failure, it still cannot be called as a success. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Other Historical Periods section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Other Historical Periods essays

  1. What was the impact of the Norman Conquest

    peasant society, although they needed to teach groups of selected men who would join the Church and go on to help Government. This led to a filtering of Anglo-Saxon aristocracy and it became virtually extinct, and the English lost control over the Church in England.

  2. Why did the Second Crusade Fail?

    On the 28th of June 1147 the crusaders successfully conquered Lisbon and this siege had been completed in a mere seventeen weeks. The only problem with the success itself is the fact that it was not originally an objective of the Second Crusade and so it is hard to say that the crusaders have redeemed themselves with just this.

  1. To what extent did WW1 cause the collapse of Tsarism?

    As she was unsure how to handle the war and the government, she continued to assign ministers who were hopeless and did little to supervise or encourage what should be done. Therefore Nicholas and Alexandra each failed at their appointed duties and was definitely blamed to an extent for the Russian defeat to Germany.

  2. To what extent was the Third Crusade a defeat for the Latins?

    The failure of the Latin forces however was not total. For instance despite fighting few major battles the Latin's victory on the battlefield had been fairly impressive. Arsuf for example has been seen as the major military success of the Third Crusade.

  1. To what extent was the first crusade a success

    Led by Peter the Hermit and Walter Sansavoir, they caused havoc across Europe and in a desperate attempt to be rid of them Alexius was forced to ship them over the Bosphorus into Asia Minor where they camped at civitot, hear they ignored his advice to wait for the rest

  2. Strategy in Cortes' conquest of Mexico

    Also, Cort�s had always asserted his interest in friendship with Montezuma and the Aztecs in general. Moreover, Cort�s was making his approach during harvest season, a time when even actively rival factions ceased military engagements in favor of more pressing economic concerns.

  1. To What Extent Was The South African War (1899 - 1902) A Capitalist War

    For a person who feels the South African War was an imperialist war, Milner becomes the key focal point. Milner's views were markedly imperialistic, choosing to support 'Britishness for Britishness' sake' through his lack of interest in peace with the Afrikaners, his disdain for learning the various languages of South

  2. Why did so many people go on the first crusade

    Urban's justification for the crusade must have been to fight of the eastern church from the pagans in the east: 'They have seized more and more of the lands of the Christians, have already defeated them seven times in battle, killed and captured many people, have destroyed churches and devastated the Kingdom of God.'(Ryan, pp.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work