• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

To what extent did Mussolini consolidation of power in Italy between 1922 and 1928 depend on violence and terror?

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

To what extent did Mussolini consolidation of power in Italy between 1922 and 1928 depend on violence and terror? Mussolini's took years to achieve what could be defined as dictatorship. It is certain that the violence and terror exerted by the fascists helped Mussolini gain dictatorship, but there also many other factors that can explain his consolidation of power. All Italians were expected to obey Mussolini and his Fascist Party. Authority was enforced by the use of the Blackshirts - the nickname for the Fasci di Combattimenti. The men in this unit were usually ex-soldiers and it was their job to bring into line those who opposed Mussolini. The motto of the Blackshirts was "Me ne frego" (I do not give a damn"). The Blackshirts did maintain an iron rule in Italy. One favoured way of making people conform was to tie a 'troublemaker' to a tree, force a pint or two of castor oil down the victim's throat and force him to eat a live toad or frog. This punishment was enough to ensure people kept their thoughts to themselves. He achieved some semblance of power after the March on Rome in 1922 when he was appointed Prime Minister of Italy. ...read more.

Middle

People were intimidated into voting for the Fascists and the Fascists took ballot papers from those who might have voted against Mussolini and were brushed aside, which may explain for the Fascists election results and why less votes were taken in. In this sense, the Acerbo Law was an important move to dictatorship in Italy. Mussolini was also very good at propaganda and he showed the Italian people all the other party's weaknesses and as a result persuaded and gained support from the Socialists and Liberals. One incident almost brought Mussolini's downfall, and his power base almost collapsed after the murder of Matteotti, when great anger gripped Italy. Blackshirt thugs did beat up critics but that did not stop Giacomo Matteotti from publicly condemning Mussolini. Matteotti was murdered by fascists and Mussolini was held responsible for this. It is possible that he did order it although this that cannot be proved. There was overwhelming public outrage at the murder, as Matteotti was Italy's leading socialist Member of Parliament. Newspapers and wall posters condemned Mussolini and in the summer of 1924 there was a real possibility that Mussolini would have to resign, which maybe why he went into hiding from the public. ...read more.

Conclusion

A future prime minister would be chosen from a list drawn by the fascist Grand Council. Although it cannot be said that it was just violence and terror, which brought Mussolini to power, it was a major factor and ensured that many of the key reforms necessary to (develop Italy as a Fascist state) or (support Mussolini's rise) could be implemented. His unorthodox methods were careless, unparliamentarily and may explain the 1924 election results. But many people were frightened of the Fascists and were too scared to speak up against Mussolini, as they feared they could end up like Matteotti. It is clear that Italians felt intimated by the Fascist violence and the secret police. Mussolini's skill played a vital role, but he was also helped by the seemingly blind incompetence of his opponents. The Liberals like Giolitti & Orlando were slow to move into opposition and the left wing was divided between many factions, majority socialists, reformist socialists and communists who all distrusted each other. We must also take into account the fact that Mussolini had his fair share of luck and a prime example is the Kings refusal to declare the army to attack the Fascists on the March on Rome, which would never have put Mussolini in power. However it is also clear that without the violence and terror Italy would not have seen the meteoric rise of Mussolini. Kieran Cooling ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Modern European History, 1789-1945 section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Modern European History, 1789-1945 essays

  1. Peer reviewed

    Why did Mussolini come to Power in 1922? How did Mussolini consolidate his position ...

    4 star(s)

    Mussolini now proceeded to consolidate his power. In November he asked for and received by an overwhelming majority from the chamber of deputies what practically amounted to dictatorial powers for a year. First, the offices of government were put under Fascist control by a law giving the government the right to dismiss civil servants on political grounds.

  2. The Bolshevik Consolidation of power 1917-21.

    They were also used as justification for the shooting of the ex-Tsar and his family in July 1918. * The execution of people without trial was typical of how the Cheka operated. There was protest from within the Bolshevik party about the lack of legality in the Cheka's method but no attempt was made to limit the Cheka's power.

  1. To what extent was Hitlers rise to power due to Economic Problems?

    The Nazis were the government at that time and Hitler had the nation within his grasp. Due to the Reichstag fire, the Nazis won the 1933 election with 17million votes and 288 seats9. Hitler managed to blame the Communists; his opponents in the election (KPD).

  2. To What Extent Did Mussolini Achieve his Foreign Policy Aims of making Italy "Great ...

    Mussolini went back to the idea that he would promote the rival blows; Italy would act as a mediator between countries, maintaining a calculated equidistance between the powers involved in any problems. On one side, there was Britain and France, and on the other lay Germany.

  1. Propaganda was the key factor in the consolidation of the Fascist regime in Italy ...

    Another critical area for Fascist control was education. Mussolini's government kept strict control over the school curriculum and any teachers who criticised Mussolini or Fascist ideas were removed. School children were taught not to question but to obey, in preparation for obey to the Fascist state as they grew older.

  2. Which Was the Most Important Reason for the Bolshevik Consolidation of Power By 1924, ...

    It caused massive social problems in Russia. No one trusted anyone, not even those who used to be friends. This was due to the fact that when the Cheka took a prisoner or executed a rebel they often would also execute families, friends or sometimes entire villages as well just to be sure they had got rid of all opposition.

  1. Why was Mussolini appointed Prime Minister in 1922?

    Although at first Mussolini had little to do with the squadristi, as soon as they began to receive donations and attract support from rural areas, he was quick to take credit for their role as 'protectors of society'. The squadristi were not forcibly resisted and many people worked along side them with no challenge or opposition.

  2. To What Extent Was Fascist Control of Italy The Result Of The Effective Use ...

    in 1926 which was similar to the army cadets. Getting 1,236,000 members in its first year was impressive work and attracted youths from 13 ? 18 under the slogan, believe, obey, fight. Even though most children came for the facilities rather than the fascist message, it still boosted the regime incredibly well.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work