• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

To what extent did the reasons for and the nature of American and Soviet intervention in the Middle East between 1956 and 1982 differ?

Extracts from this document...


To what extent did the reasons for and the nature of American and Soviet intervention in the Middle East between 1956 and 1982 differ? Beginning from the birth of Israel, both the Soviet Union and The U.S. have vacillated drastically on their position regarding the country and other issues pertaining to the conflict between Israel and the surrounding Arab countries. The motives of the two powers differed thusly, the west (to include Britain and France) had a more vested interest in activities in the Middle-East as a result of oil interests, whereas the USSR objectives were to increase influence in the area by exploiting the Israeli-Arab conflict. Stalin had initially supported the concept of a Jewish state in Palestine in 1947, he viewed Israel as an opportunity to establish a Soviet Satellite state in the Middle-east. Stalin was notoriously anti-semitic but aligning himself with Israel would be an astute political move that would guarantee a wealth of Soviet influence in the area. ...read more.


America?s refusal to provide aid to egypt set the ball rolling for Suez Canal Crisis, Nasser intended to nationalize the canal which was under French and British Sovereignty. To prevent this Israel, Britain and France colluded together without the permission of The U.S to invade Egypt and reclaim the Canal. The U.S with the support of the Soviet Union denounced the decision a source of great embarrassment for the countries involved. The USSR was eager to forge an alliance with Egypt, for no better reason then the promise of influence in the area. America was arguably motivated by economic concerns regarding oil but as this was before Russia began selling weapons to countries in the area they truly had little real motivations to intervene. After Egypt?s loss in the Six Day War Russia became even more deeply involved. By the early 1970?s the number of Soviet personnel in Egypt had risen to 20,000. Soviet advisers' patronizing attitudes, Moscow's slow response to requests for more sophisticated equipment, and Cairo's desire for more freedom in preparing for a new conflict were considered by observers as some of the reasons for Sadat's decision to expel most Soviet military personnel in July 1972. ...read more.


In 1948 this was a dangerous move that would alienate U.S oil interests, however the U.S still recognized the country. France remained the primary provider of weaponry for Israel during this period. The U.S wanted to remain neutral during the Suez Crisis so as not to alienate Nasser. At this point the only aid provided to Israel was food rations. The turn in policy came in 1967 during Lyndon B. Johnson's presidency, America went from remaining neutral to firmly picking a side. This created a great amount of distrust toward America from the Arab community. In 1973 America replaced France as the main provider of weaponry to Israel. This change to a more military approach toward the conflict was a result of the infamous Henry Kissinger, the once prominent diplomacy the U.S had shown was revised completely. The Camp David accord brokered By President Carter was in a sense the resolution of the Middle-East conflict between Israel and Egypt. It was in the vested interests for both Israel and Egypt to have close ties with America thereby creating stability in the region. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level International History, 1945-1991 section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level International History, 1945-1991 essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    To what extent is the oil crisis of 1973 a turning point in postwar ...

    5 star(s)

    The G-7 was established 1976, when Canada joined the Group of Six: France, Germany, Italy, Japan, United Kingdom, and United States, and was formed originally with the main aim of tackling the 1973 oil crisis and bringing back economic stability to the world.

  2. Why was the Six-day War of 1967 a Significant Turning Point in the History ...

    But to ensure victory Nasser made alliances with other Arab nations, this included Syria and Jordan. The 6-day-war At the end of May 1967 Nasser warned the U.N. peacekeepers to leave the area, they followed his advice. On the 5th of June 1967 the war had begun.

  1. The Arab-Israeli conflict 1956, 1967 and 1973.

    In 1973 in Yom Kippur, the Russians played a great part in the war because they were the main providers of military equipment for the Arabs. The Russians supplied the Arabs with arms and professional mercenaries who would train

  2. Was the West justified in ignoring the 1956 events in Hungary and Poland as ...

    'buffer zone' from Germany, which destroyed many of the Soviet Unions cities during World War II. Joseph Stalin, the leader of the Soviet Union during and at the end of World War II, believed that having Eastern Europe between the USSR and Germany would keep the USSR safe and intact.


    the recent War Scare following the so-called Zinoviev Telegram - or from the countryside. * The debate inside the Communist Party was about how to squeeze capital from the peasants - all were agreed on the policy of industrialisation. * As well as capital from the countryside, the workers needed

  2. Europe and the Suez Crisis 1956 - To what extent was the military action ...

    Both the French and the British associated Nasser�s nationalization of the Canal with historical analogies, which was not going to be repeated: Hitler�s occupation of The Rhineland as well as his take over of Czechoslovakia. The US-president, Eisenhower, strongly expressed his hostility on the matter of forces being used in Egypt.

  1. The Arab Israeli Conflict -

    In 1956, the United States gave Israel assurances that it recognized the Jewish State's right of access to the Straits of Tiran. In 1957, at the UN, 17 maritime powers declared that Israel had a right to transit the Strait.

  2. UN Middle East 1947

    In a stateless area, everyone's voice should be heard according to specific areas. The same principle applies to what is/has happened in Northern Ireland - sure the whole of Ireland wants it to be unified but the majority of those in Northern Ireland do not.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work