• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

To what extent is it possible to associate the regimes of Benito Mussolini and Adolf Hitler with social and political modernization?

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

To what extent is it possible to associate the regimes of Benito Mussolini and Adolf Hitler with social and political modernization? Both the Fascist and Nazi regimes of Mussolini and Hitler undoubtedly changed the world and the course of modern history forever with their vast plans for state expansion, social change and their newly acquired taste for empire building. Both men had ambitious ideas which they implemented in their countries each believing their own right-wing ideology to be the true path to greatness and glory for their respective empires, and both men bought about huge social and political change within their regimes, however one must remember that although Hitler and Mussolini were both right-wing dictators, they were two very different men with differing ideological perspectives and it is important not to lump the two together when discussing or comparing their regimes or policies as many historians have tended to do in the past. To begin with I will examine the Italian dictatorship of Benito Mussolini and assess the extent to which his Fascist regime achieved social and political modernization. It is interesting to note that at this present time many thinkers in Italy are asking whether one should be wary of Berlusconi, as he too, like Mussolini has come to power as a charismatic politician promising hope and new policies to Italians, and whether he too may be hiding more radical policies up his sleeve and waiting for the right time to implement them. ...read more.

Middle

when they were caught up in the crossfire between KPD and SA members in the events of 'Bloody Sunday' in Altona on 17th July 1932.2 At this tense time of civil unrest, coupled with massive unemployment and widespread poverty, Hitler with his talk of restoring hope and pride to a weakened Germany was what many people saw as the antidote to Germany's disease. In 1931 Heinrich Bruning was the Chancellor of Germany, trying to sort out problem after problem, whilst President Hindenberg was becoming increasingly frustrated at Bruning's seeming inability to deal with Germany's economic and social problems. German's were not satisfied with the government, something highlighted when Bruning travelled around Germany his train had to have the blinds permanently drawn as whenever crowds caught sight of him they would often throw rocks. Bruning's political career abruptly ended when he was wrongly identified with plans put forward by the Minister for Labour, Adam Stegerwald, which included proposals to nationalize heavy industry. His enemies accused him of Bolshevism and after a curt interview President Hindenberg asked for his resignation. His replacment was Franz von Papen, a petty aristocrat with un-democratic views. After making no headway with new policies and being roundly humiliated in parliament by the Communists, Papen secretly met Hitler on the 18th January 1933. He agreed to let Hitler have the Chancellorship, in exchange for Papen becoming Vice-Chancellor, leaving Papen well positioned for when Hitler cracked under the strains of power. ...read more.

Conclusion

were friendly with the Nazis were able to buy up struggling regional newspapers so that eventually one company Eher Verlag and its associates controlled 82.5% of the German press. There was now a Reich Association of the German Press which all journalists were now part of, excluding the thirteen hundred Jewish and 'Marxist' journalists that had been sacked or fled the country by 1935. Only those who passed the Nazis racial and political screening could work as journalists at all, and they could not write anything even slightly critical of the government for fear of severe punishment. Under the October 1933 Editors Law the responsibilities of editors to the government became absolute and now whatever was published became the editors own legal responsibility, therefore placing the onus upon editors themselves not to let anything critical become published. The Nazis, unlike Mussolini and the Italian Fascists, had complete and utter control over the German media, and through such strong repressive measures they were able to achieve the changes they wanted to bring about. However although the Italian Fascists did arrest and execute opponents, their repression was not on the same scale as the Nazis, and I believe this was why they could not achieve the same level of change and modernization as the Nazis. To put it simply I belive the more repressive the regime and the more fear amongst the population, the easier it is to engineer social and political change. 1 www.wikepedia.com 2 The Third Reich- Michael Burleigh ?? ?? ?? ?? ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Modern European History, 1789-1945 section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Modern European History, 1789-1945 essays

  1. Was Hitler a weak dictator?

    He did not only use fear to eliminate opposition, he also used politics and intelligence systems to trace, eliminate and hide any evidence of opposition found. For example he eradicated unions in Factories replacing them with Nazi groups, that by the way had no real power.

  2. How and why did the Weimar Governments collapse between October 1929 and January 1933?

    As Schleicher failed, as had the rest, to form a majority government and requested emergency powers, Hindenburg realised that Papen and Hugenburg made a very valid point. Hindenburg refuses to grant Schleicher any emergency powers and he resigns as Chancellor on the 28th January 1933, less than 2 months after being appointed.

  1. Evaluate historical comparisons of Hitler and Stalin and their regimes

    His main focus was on making the public aware that Hitler and Stalinism was so similar. He argued that Nazism should not be regarded as the incomparable evil of the 20th century.5 He developed upon Arendt's theory that communism and Nazism shared the same totalitarian form.

  2. Evaluate the Nazis economic policies from 1933 - 1939. To what extent were the ...

    133 4 Guillebaud C. W., The Economic Recovery of Germany: From 1933 to the Incorporation of Austria in March 1938, Macmillan & Co., Ltd: London, 1939, Pg.

  1. To what extent were economic considerations the main motive for Portuguese exploration and empire ...

    Also say if there was no Henry the Navigator would this that meant that the voyages would not have happened? Perhaps but perhaps because of the economic conditions that Portugal faced perhaps somebody would have explored even if he hadn't had any "encouragement" from Henry.

  2. Hitlers Germany

    It prepared. people for the dictatorial rule of the Nazis. Upon Schleicher's recommendation, the first chancellor under the presidential system was Heinrich Bruening, one of the leaders of the Catholic Center party. Bruening tried to deal with the depression by applying traditional economic theory, and submitted a balanced budget to the Reichstag in July 1930.

  1. How far did Russia undergo economic and political modernization from 1881-1905?

    Another important reasons for Russia not undergoing modernization was that 82% of society was peasants and only 4% ( only 800,000) were urban workers. However possibly the most important reason for not industralising was the upper class and the aristocrats were extremely weary of economic modernisation.

  2. How significant was foreign influence in shaping Italian political and social development in the ...

    taking of Venetia and the absence of French troops in Rome completed the unification process. Hence, foreign influence was a powerful factor in creating liberal and republican ideologies as well as creating the right situation in order for Italian aspirations of unification to materialise.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work