• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

To what extent was Henry's decision to break with Rome influenced by Thomas Cranmer and Thomas Cromwell?

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

To what extent was Henry's decision to break with Rome influenced by Thomas Cranmer and Thomas Cromwell? The break with Rome was one part of the reformation in England carried out by Henry VIII and his ministers. By removing the Pope's influence from his court, Henry became more at liberty to pass laws and other reforms, as well as gaining his much sought divorce and subsequent marriage to Anne Boleyn. The break with Rome was a gradual process that began in 1529 with the 'Reformation Parliament.' Henry and his advisors passed various legislation and legal processes which damaged the Church financially and politically. The charge of the breach of Praemunire was a criminal charge against the clergy which was revoked after a large bribe (1530 - 1531); meanwhile, the Act in Restraint of Annates prevented Rome from its traditional practice of taking a proportion of the clergy's pay (1532). The Act in Restraint of Appeals (1533) was a step forward for Henry - while the other legislation was primarily aimed at weakening the Church financially, this act reduced Rome's political power by preventing people appealing to Rome against a decision made by the powers in England. In historical context Henry's intentions were clear - that he would secure a divorce in an English court and prevent any appeal to the uncooperative Pope. ...read more.

Middle

Thomas Cranmer was appointed Archbishop of Canterbury in 1533 and was a strong opponent of the Pope. Cranmer's main motive was to reform the Catholic Church in keeping with what he believed to be God's will. Randell backs this up by saying, "(Cranmer's) aim was to see the clock turned back to the time, when, he claimed, the situation had been as God intended."6 Cranmer certainly had influence on Henry. For example it was his suggestion, during the dispute over the divorce, to canvass theologians at universities around the world to gain support for Henry's cause.7 Although this had little effect on Rome's decision it demonstrates Henry's willingness to listen to Cranmer and his ideas. Cranmer was a long standing advocate for absolute sovereignty and for Henry to be head of the Church in England. This is evidenced by his actions before his ascent to the position of Archbishop of Canterbury - specifically his criticism of the Pope's power in England. Despite this, he was not the main driving force behind the break with Rome, which was far more significant than Cranmer's policy on universities. Rather, he was someone who was utilised by Henry and Cromwell to carry out policy rather than suggest it. However, by enacting such policies, Cranmer leant momentum to the king's plans and made many of them possible. ...read more.

Conclusion

This should not be taken to mean that it was Cromwell's sole decision to break with Rome. In fact, it was clearly Henry's decision and he was the single most important individual involved, given his role as a monarch with absolute power. Rather, it shows that Cromwell and Cranmer had more influence than other individuals who tried to influence the course of policy. 2,184 words. 1 Henry VIII and the English Reformation (1993) - Richard Rex, page 8 2 Henry VIII and the English Reformation (1993) - Richard Rex, page 24 3 Henry VIII and the English Reformation (1995) - D.G. Newcombe, page 46 4 Henry VIII and the English Reformation (1993) - Richard Rex, page 16 5 Henry VIII and the Reformation in England (1993) - Keith Randell, page 42 6 Henry VIII and the Reformation in England (1993) - Keith Randell, page 42 7 Henry VIII and the English Reformation (1993) - Richard Rex, page 12 8 Henry VIII and the English Reformation (1995) - D.G. Newcombe, page 39 9 Tudor England (1988) - John Guy, pages 130-132 10 Henry VIII (1968) - J.J. Scarisbrick, pages 287-295 11 Henry VIII and the English Reformation (1995) - D.G. Newcombe, page 43 12 Henry VIII and his Ministers (1995) - John Guy, page 35. 13 Henry VIII and the Reformation in England (1993) - Keith Randell, page 42 14 Henry VIII and the Reformation in England (1993) - Keith Randell, pages 41-42 ?? ?? ?? ?? George Noble 12JK History Coursework 1 ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level British History: Monarchy & Politics section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level British History: Monarchy & Politics essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Assess the view that Henry VIII's wish for a male heir was the main ...

    3 star(s)

    However, he had had mistresses before, and thought she would be another in a long list of names. However, Anne Boleyn refused to be his mistress and wanted to be more than just a mistress. Henry was not used to not getting what he wanted, and therefore it made him more determined to be with her.

  2. To What Extent Was Henry Vll Secure?

    And when Warbeck was finally found he was executed. These were all drastic measures so obviously he was a big threat to Henry and many important people had given their support to Henry, showing how weak his power was. Henry saw Warbeck as a thorn in his side as he was trying to seize power for much of the 1490's.

  1. Why did Henry break with Rome?

    But it was only when Anne Boleyn announced she pregnant in December 1532 that Henry wanted a fast solution to the divorce issue. This suggests that the schism had nothing to do with doctrinal issues but Henry's desire to get his own way.

  2. To What Extent Was Cromwell Responsible For Expansions

    of a complex bureaucratic system eventually comprising and separate revenue counts to manage the royal finances." However these changes were largely ad hoc and the measures were by no means permanent as in Mary's reign finances are again reformed. Many features of mediaeval financial management remained such as the Coffers still being located in the King's own bedchamber.

  1. What kind of king does Shakespeare create in Act 3 Scenes 1 and 2? ...

    Henry's reflection of his role as king whilst he is alone is somewhat self-pitying. Shakespeare portrays Henry as finding the responsibility of leader hard as everyone relies on him; "Let us our lives, our sole, our debts, our careful wives, our children and our sins, lay on the king.

  2. Assess the view that Henry VIII's wish for a divorce was the main reason ...

    political and pragmatic and most probably due to the break down of relations between the pope and Henry due to the pope's refusal to grant the divorce. For example Henry wished for a divorce with Catherine of Aragon but as this was being said Catherine's nephew Charles V, a powerful

  1. Examine the Degree to which Wolsey was responsible for his own downfall

    Wolsey's foreign policy was another factor to his downfall, his foreign policy was a vigorous one involving a constant shifting pattern of alliance. Wolsey's behaviour between Charles V and Francis I has been much discussed. Scarisbrick has argued that Wolsey always wanted peace and that there was an underlying conflict with Henry.

  2. Within the context of the period 1337-1471, to what extent can Henry VI be ...

    court where most people spoke a language she was yet to learn?. Margaret of Anjou played a pivotal role in the Wars of the Roses, most notably after February 1456, when York?s second protectorate ended, as Margaret managed to establish a power base in the northwest, and also persuade the

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work