• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

To what extent was Mary I successful in her attempt to re-impose Catholicism in England?

Extracts from this document...


To what extent was Mary I successful in her attempt to re-impose Catholicism in England? Traditionalists have seen Mary's reign as a failure; they believed that Protestantism was far too embedded and people wouldn't accept Catholicism and the reversal of the Reformation, which was quite popular and strong, would cause a huge disaster. However, the Marian Reformation was, unexpectedly, quite successful. Mary, aided by her cousin Cardinal Pole, brought back Catholic doctrines and rituals, including the Mass, brought back the papal headship and crushed opposition from Protestants. In spite of this, Mary's inability to produce an heir brought the Protestant Princess Elizabeth came to the throne after her death in November 1558, which ended her Catholic Reformation. Mary's Reformation was quite popular, as there wasn't much opposition towards it. At her accession there was much rejoicing and enthusiasm, this shows that people were happy to have Mary as Queen and accepted her. As many Protestants saw her accession as God's verdict on their failures; most either conformed to the changes or went abroad. Just four bishops - Cranmer, Latimer, Ridley and Hooper - refused to recognise Catholicism and they were later all burned at stake for this. ...read more.


Approximately, 224 were burnt at the stake over the next three years and it was the most serious religious persecution in English history. The burnings were serious and gruesome and there were at least five burnings per month, over a 44 month period. Those burnt were mainly lesser men and were mostly from Norwich and London. Most of England didn't any burnings. The burnings were of laity who were zealous heretics, usually preachers; they had been convicted more than once. Mary was one of the driving forces behind the persecution; however it was also employed by bishops including Bishop Bonner of London. They believed that a small group of wicked men had led England to Protestantism, in the hopes of misleading the nation, and they had to burn them at stake in order to save the Church from them and other heretics, as the Catholic Church had been teaching for centuries. By 1555, there was powerful Protestant opinion around, especially in London and other parts of the south east and Mary's regime would have been failing its spiritual duty if it turned a blind eye towards it. Only four bishops were executed and none of the victims were of noble or gentry status; there were very few Protestant martyrs from the ruling classes. ...read more.


However, the people of England seemed to have a lot of respect for the government and unity was large between people, therefore they Church of England was run by the monarch who was aided by a bench of bishops. Most people agreed with the government's policies, when faced with religious disagreement. Nonetheless, it is very clear that if Mary had lived longer, or had an heir, then the English Church would have remained Catholic for a much longer period and would have been successful, like the most of Mary's reign, despite the loss of Calais to the French. Much Protestantism would have remained but the Protestants would have been powerless and wouldn't have been able to challenge the Catholic Church; most Protestants would have conformed or left England to escape persecution, like most other Protestants. Protestant rebellions against the Catholic Church weren't popular, as proved with Wyatt's rebellion and the burning at stake of the 224 heretics. The Church was very popular, moderate and traditional which gave it widespread attractiveness. Mary's reign was seen as a triumph; she had easily restored Catholic beliefs and rituals to the English Church and had even brought back the papal headship. Her Catholic Reformation was genuinely popular and had little opposition. ?? ?? ?? ?? ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level British History: Monarchy & Politics section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level British History: Monarchy & Politics essays

  1. The Henrician Reformation.

    The petition was forwarded in the House of Commons which looked at religious corruption and abuses within the church. The king later used the document to create the 'Submission of the Clergy' which meant the clergy had to submit under the will of the king.

  2. Was the Henrician Reformation inevitable?

    infiltrate in 1520 and 1521.Within a few years his ideas were " agitating some of the younger scholars, especially at Cambridge...among the interested were Thomas Cramner and Nicholas Shaxton, destined to be rulers of the church6". With Lutheran ideas amongst influential people, reform could be imposed from above.

  1. To what extent was the Henrican Reformation imposed from 'above'?

    Priory was 'now used for great pilgrimage'12, despite Cromwell's Injunctions that had ruled against such practices. Clearly traditional practices were still very much believed in, and no amount of higher moves against them could deter people from worshipping such shrines.

  2. 'Without the Divorce Crisis, there would not have been a Henrician Reformation.' Discuss.

    The Parliament made many changes. The 'Act in Restraint of Appeals 1553' finalised the concept that legal factors should reside with the monarch, and not from those outside the country, such as the Pope. There were no more appeals to be given to Rome in testamentary or matrimonial causes, which eradicated a lot of the Pope's influence.

  1. Using all the sources, and your own knowledge, assess the extent to which Marys ...

    The support for here claim the throne led her to believe firmly that the people were Catholic at hear, and that they were only being led by Protestant officials. When she became Queen, there was widespread rejoicing with many places quick to restore the Mass, altars, images and relics banned from previous reigns.

  2. Does Alexander II deserve the title of 'Tsar liberator'?

    Government officials could be offered a type of internal diplomatic immunity and the military courts remained unreformed. Most crucially though, despite on paper the reforms looking most beneficial to Russia and to the liberation of the people, the new system did not apply to peasants and there were many legal loopholes.

  1. In what ways and to what extent does the concept of Spain's 'Golden Age' ...

    Overall, there was never enough income for Philip to deal with the financial difficulties of his reign, and he was never able to fully pay back his borrowings. Philip had little military success, but managed to increase his empire by a large amount.

  2. How Successful was Edward Carson in His Defense of Unionism During The Third Home ...

    men are prepared to male great sacrifices which they clearly understand, the talk of resistance is no use. We will? be confronted by many weaklings in our own camp who talk very loud and mean nothing and will be the first to criticise us when the moment of action comes? (Stewart, 1997, p.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work