• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

To what extent was Philip II personally responsible for the problems he faced in the Netherlands in the 1560s?

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

To what extent was Philip II personally responsible for the problems he faced in the Netherlands in the 1560's? During the 1560's Philip faced many problems in the Netherlands ranging from anger at his bishoprics scheme to the Iconoclastic fury of 1566. The trade depression and bad winter of 1564/65 along with the pent up dissatisfaction from Charles V's reign cannot be blamed on Philip, however he must bear the greatest responsibility for the problems he faced in the Netherlands in the 1560's due mainly to his insistence on the implementation of Catholicism, and also due to his appointments and his continued absence from the Netherlands. The main reason why Philip must bear the greatest responsibility for the problems he faced in the Netherlands in the 1560's was his insistence on the implementation of Catholicism. The Netherlands was one of the early centres of humanism and the reformation and so Philip's introduction of the bishoprics scheme in 1561 which attempted to deploy more bishops to cover smaller in ...read more.

Middle

Margaret of Parma wasn't politically astute and was feeble in her dealings with the grandees. This inability to deal with the grandees who were already angered after the secrecy of the bishoprics scheme was crucial as it enabled the grandees to force through laws to relax heresy. These in turn led to Calvinist hedge preaching and then the Iconoclastic fury of 1566 which involved the ransacking of images and paintings from churches and smashing them in the streets. This was known as the First Revolt and was the trigger of Philip's second poor appointment - the Duke of Alva as the leader 76,000 Spanish troops to put down the uprising. However, because of Philip's indecisive character it took him a long time to make this appointment and by the time the troops had arrived the uprising had already been put down by alarmed nobles. The appointment of the Duke of Alva was a bad decision by Philip because Alva's brutal massacre of those involved in the uprising through the ...read more.

Conclusion

This had pushed many into exile and in the long term had actually brought about many problems for Philip in the 1560's because whilst in exile around Europe these exiles had learned more about Calvinism an d during the 1560's they returned to the Netherlands and played an instrumental part in the hedge preachings and Iconoclastic fury of 1567. Overall Philip was highly responsible for the problems he faced in the Netherlands in the 1560's. Although the trade depression, the bad winter and the pent up dissatisfaction from Charles V's reign were not his fault, Philip contributed much more to the problems he faced in Netherlands in the 1560's mainly because of his insistence on the implementation of Catholicism, and also because of his appointments and his reluctance to visit the Netherlands. In the long term Philip's personal responsibility for the problems in the 1560's and his inability to solve these problems led to the majority of the Netherlands being lost in the Truce of Antwerp in 1609. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Other Historical Periods section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Other Historical Periods essays

  1. To what extent was the Dutch Revolt in 1572 primarily caused by Religion?

    It was feared as being, as Motley says, a "coming evil still more terrible than any which had yet oppressed them." Philip attempted to set up the Inquisition in Naples, but was met with revolt consistently throughout the 1490s and 1530s.

  2. Assess the view that Philip II as king of Spain was Absolute in Theory ...

    In addition, the people messaging Philip's messages could not be from an entirely reliable source therefore letters or instructions could have never even arrived their destinations. Although it is also important to point out from what Kamen said about Philip "not sharing his beliefs with any person or institution".

  1. Explain how Philip II became King of Portugal in 1581. Although Philip II devoted ...

    Quentin where the Spanish army achieved another great victory. However France retaliated by taking Calais from England which Philip was also king of at the time. A deal had to be struck as neither monarch could afford to carry on fighting, so a treaty was signed with France retaining Calais but giving up all claims on Italy and Philip marrying Elizabeth Valois.

  2. Explain the external problems Spain faced on the accession of Philip II in 1556 ...

    However the negative side was that the information he received was often fragmented and so his knowledge was sometime inaccurate. The councils also sometime interfered in each other's works, but Philip was always in control and had power over all the councils.

  1. Explain Philip IIs relationship with the Papacy. How far was Philip II responsible ...

    Moors were Muslims and Moriscos were converts who had converted to Christianity. However the people of Spain were still suspicious of them, and the vast majority of Inquisition cases were against Moriscos.

  2. To what extent is it true to say the Provisional Government faced an impossible ...

    This lead to an increase in the difficulty of the task facing the Provisional Government as the lower classes were immediately resentful towards them, making them less likely to accept the leadership of the Provisional Government and therefore more likely to rebel against it, a great worry for the Provisional

  1. What was the short term significance of the Amritsar Massacre?

    Indeed, the Amritsar Massacre wonderfully succeeded to completely alienate the Indian elites and middle class who were previously Moderates or even pro-British. Tagore, the renowned Indian poet, rejected his knighthood, which was shameful "in their incongruous context of humiliation"10; Motial Nehru, who was so staunchly pro-British that he sent his

  2. By 1598, Spain was essentially bankrupt and Philip III inherited a nation seemingly doomed ...

    The successes of places such as Seville was not as it seemed at the time. It was, in fact, superficial prosperity and more an account of foreign investment than a mark of any real Spanish success. A further problem which faced Spain as well was the growing decline in the

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work