• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

To what extent was superior military leadership the reason for success in the first Crusade?

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

´╗┐To what extent was superior military leadership the reason for success in the first Crusade? In July 1099 the First Crusade succeeded in its objective and captured the holy city of Jerusalem. The leadership provided by key figures such as Bohemond of Taranto, Raymond of Toulouse and Adhemar of Le Puy was of key importance. Bohemond was an able general whose aggressive tactics created the victories over Ridwan and Kerbogah, while Robert of Normandy was a vital military commander who rallied the troops at Dorylaeum and leading the charge at Ascalon. They led the crusading armies to victory in sieges at Nicaea, Antioch and Jerusalem and battles at Dorylaeum and Antioch. Adhemar played a key role in uniting the lay princes ? as is shown by the near collapse of the crusade after his death at Antioch. Other factors which contributed to success include the divisions within the Muslim world with the fragmentation of the Seldjuk Empire after 1092, and tensions between Turks and Arabs, Fatimids and Abbasids and Sunnis and Shias all aided the crusaders. The role of Byzantium also contributed to the success of the First Crusade ? in particular the provision of supplies during the crossing of Anatolia and at Antioch, where ...read more.

Middle

The Seljuks had overrun the Sunni territories in the East as well as the Byzantines in 1071. They had occupied Jerusalem since 1069 but, had themselves become faction ridden. The death of Malik Shah in 1092 led to his territory being betrothed to his son Barkiyarak and his brother, Tutush. These were deeply hostile and with Barkiyarak overrun Tutush?s territory after the battle of Rayy. However Tutush?s followers refused to yield to their new overlord and when the crusaders arrived, many preferred them than their new Muslim protector. This is most clearly demonstrated with the journey across Anatolia and the Holy Land. The crusaders were never to be as fortunate again with the confrontation of a divided enemy. Indeed subsequent crusades all failed and this could be said to be largely due to confronting the united Muslim foe of Zengi, Nurredin and Saladin. The support for beseiged cities seems to be minimal as can be seen with the attacks on Nicea, Antioch and Jerusalem. Although some relief forces came, such as from Kerbogha at Antioch, it does not feel to be a universal response to the crusader threat. ...read more.

Conclusion

Yet, even the knights had the fear of going to hell. Thus the chance to fight and kill as an act of penance allowed them to be successful on the crusade both willingly and without fear. On many occasions during the crusade, the turning point of the battle was morale levels of the crusaders. In particular, the discovery of the Holy Lance during the siege of Antioch in 1097 by Raymond and Peter Bartholomew motivated the crusaders to continue their efforts to defeat the Muslims because this all mighty discovery proved to them that God was supporting them. The armies were facing great threat from the Seljuk Troops from within Antioch. After days and days of fighting and in many cases losing, the crusaders, led by Bohemond, were losing motivation and confidence. Lack of food and supplies contributed to this. However, the discovery of the holy lance in Antioch gave these crusaders the confidence that God provided them with due to their spiritual beliefs. This meant that on the 28th June 1098 the Crusaders were strong enough to march towards Jerusalem believing that they had the support of God. This common interest brought the troops together making them stronger and brutal. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Other Historical Periods section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Other Historical Periods essays

  1. To what extent was the Third Crusade a defeat for the Latins?

    The battle of Arsuf had therefore been a success for the Latin's not only on the battlefield but also in terms of crusader morale. Fought in 1192 the battle of Jaffa secured the Latin's dominance in the battlefield. In it's recapture the Latin's had displayed a brilliant strike surprisingly from the coast but more impressive had been its defence.

  2. Why did so many people go on the first crusade

    most of the Knights made their way home again after they had completed their pilgrimage. It is also important to emphasise that whilst some of the leaders of the crusade for example Godfrey took their family with them obviously intending to settle in the Holy land most of the leaders

  1. To what extent was strong leadership the main reason for the success of the ...

    Muslim disunity was the most important reason as to why the First Crusade succeeded as if the Muslim world had been united in repelling the Crusaders from their lands, the Crusaders' would have had to fight for every inch of land they took instead of picking off individual Muslim leaders one by one.

  2. Why did the Second Crusade Fail?

    On the 28th of June 1147 the crusaders successfully conquered Lisbon and this siege had been completed in a mere seventeen weeks. The only problem with the success itself is the fact that it was not originally an objective of the Second Crusade and so it is hard to say that the crusaders have redeemed themselves with just this.

  1. To what extent was the first crusade a success

    Also hidden in the Pope's mind at Clermont must have been the hope of reconciliation between the Eastern and Western Churches. The Pope is reported to have been pleased that Alexius came to him for help, rather than the Holy Roman Emperor in Germany.

  2. How important was the discovery of the Holy Lance in the Crusader success in ...

    One of the major reasons for the Crusaders' success at Antioch was the timely relief sent by the Byzantine Emperor Alexius, in the form of resources brought to them by the fleet of Edgar Atheling; had these resources not arrived it is highly possible that the siege would ultimately have

  1. To what extent did WW1 cause the collapse of Tsarism?

    The army were given priority when it came to food and so bread rationing in the cities occurred. A rise in prices for food made Petrograd (St. Petersburg was renamed as a patriotic gesture) furious and if the people weren't supporting the results of the war, they were definitely not supporting the reign of Nicholas.

  2. To What Extent Can The Establishment Of The Crusader States From 1099 1118 ...

    Tancred was ambitious, when he became ruler of Edessa he refused to give up the county to its rightful leader Baldwin II after his release, this resulted in a battle in which crusader fought crusader even using Muslims as their allies.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work