• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Unification of Italy - Factors of Success.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Unification of Italy Factors of Success "Various ideological, political and economic forces made the Italian unification movement in the 19th century possible." To what extent is this statement valid? (1990) ????????????????????????????????????????(1990) Ideological 1. Ideas of nationalism and liberalism had been sown??? during the French Revolution and Napoleonic Era. Firstly, Napoleon united the whole of Italian peninsula, grouping all Italians into one nation-state, letting Italians re-taste national unity after the fall of the Roman Empire. It was especially true to Italians who were proud of their glorious ancient history. Though Italy was broken again in 1815, Italians still wanted national unity again. Secondly, Napoleon's reforms like those in education, laws, administration and economy had spread ideas of liberty and equality, and encouraged the rise of middle class. 2. Before 1848 there were three ideas of unification. Yet the failure of the 1848 Revolution made it clear that both republicanism???? and papal federalism?????? were infeasible. Constitutional monarchism?????? advocated?? by Piedmont???was the only feasible??choice to unite Italy. Political A. International: 1. Despite the limitations set by the Vienna Settlement, Greece and Belgium succeeded in struggling for national independence respectively. Then both Bulgaria and Serbia managed to obtain autonomy from Ottoman Turkey. All these inspired?? the long-suppressed Italians. 2. Though the 1848 Revolution failed, the decline??of Austria looked obvious. She was unable to solve the problems of racial rivalries???? and economic stagnation?? in her great empire. Metternich??? had fled??. ...read more.

Middle

and Two Sicilies????. At last, the German unification movement contributed to the success of the final stage of Risorgimento????. In 1866 Italy allied with Prussia to defeat Austria. Bismarck rewarded Italy with Venetia????. During the Franco-Prussian War of 1870, Italy sent troops to capture?? Rome as the French garrison?? had been called back?? to go home. Thus, France, Britain and Prussia all contributed both direct and indirect help to the success of Italian unification. (Foreign help might not be absolutely reliable??. First, Piedmont had to sacrifice?? Nice and Savoy in exchange?? of the French help to oust?? Austria. It was conditional????. Second, in 1859 Napoleon III suddenly retreated from the Austro-Piedmontese War and signed the Treaty of Villafranca????? with Francis Joseph????.???. Thus, by 1859 Piedmont got Lombardy??? only) B. Domestic: 1. The Vienna Settlement of 1815 had to some extent strengthened?? Piedmont and made her a potential???? leader in the Italian unification movement. To become a buffer state??? against France, Piedmont was given additional population and extra-territories like Sardinia????, Nice, Savoy and Genoa???. The House?? of Savoy was also made the only native?? ruler on the peninsula. By comparison, the Austrian annexation of Lombardy and Venetia, the Austrian cadets?? in the three duchies (Parma??, Modena??? and Tuscany????) and the Bourbon?? rule in the Two Sicilies were unpopular. ...read more.

Conclusion

Yet, the work of Mazzini ought not to be neglected??. He had been able to arouse?? Italians' desire for national unity and independence in his revolutionary career??. Finally, it was Victor Emmanuel II who in 1866 allied?? with Prussia to defeat Austria and recovered Venetia, and in 1870 captured Rome when the French garrison had gone home. He completed the final stage?? of Risorgimento. Economic 1. On the Italian peninsula in 1852-70, only Piedmont was prosperous. In most of the northern Italian states, thanks to?? the Austrian exploitation??, there was heavy taxation. About one-eighth of the national revenue?? of the Austrian Empire derived from the Italian vassals??. Italian industrialists and middle class were annoyed???. 2. In the south, the Kingdom of Two Sicilies suffered from economic stagnation and land shortage??. The Bourbon family imposed?? heavy taxes but failed to make a fair distribution of lands among peasants. There was little relief?? during natural disasters??. In 1860, therefore, many people in the south welcomed Garibaldi's arrival, wishing that he could kick away the Bourbons and re-distribute lands. Sooner or later, they agreed to union?? with Piedmont in the plebiscite in the hope that the prosperity of Piedmont could stretch?? to the south. 3. Under Cavour's reform programme, Britain became the largest trading partner of Piedmont. If Piedmont was able to unite the whole of Italy, the British markets in Italy would be enlarged??. Hence, it explained partly why Britain was happy to aid in the Italian unification movement. END 1 1 ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Modern European History, 1789-1945 section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Modern European History, 1789-1945 essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Contrast The Contribution Made By Mazzini, Cavour and Garibaldi to Italian Unification

    4 star(s)

    position and policies, but also managed to use them in favor of his own aim. From a Piedmontese expansionist Cavour became a politician whose actions were concentrated on the Unification. Unlike Garibaldi and Mazzini, Cavour?s actions towards militia were minor and towards ideology there were none, for the ideas of Unification and nationalism were foreign and ridiculous to him.

  2. Reasons for Napoleon's Success (to 1807).

    It was a situation not enjoyed by any enemy general. * Military expenditure was enormous. Conquered territories were exploited to make the army self-sufficient. Troops were quartered on annexed or occupied lands. Huge indemnities were demanded from defeated countries as part of the price of peace.

  1. What were the obstacles to German Unification immediatly before the 1848 Revolutions

    foolish to come into conflict with the Habsburgs, so while Austria was oppose to unification was impossible. Another obstacle to German Unification in the beginning of 1848 was the power of Austria and Prussia, I have already said why they were so powerful, these two states worked in a state

  2. To what extent did Italian Unification owe its success to international aid?

    It can be said after this that Italy no longer had the aid of foreign help and had to gain independence by themselves. Cavour played a critical role along the side of Napoleon. Some people dispute this he was fighting steadfastly for unification of Italy.

  1. "Foreign success; domestic failure." How fair is this summary of Bismarck's governance of Germany

    Finally in 1889 came the Old Age and Disability Act giving pensions to those over 70 and disablement pensions to those who were younger. This action was well received by some workers but most thought it was a sham as the government still opposed trade unions.

  2. Explain Why The Austrian War Of 1859 Was Important In The Process Of Unification

    Emperor Napoleon III's reception to the bloodshed and carnage witnessed in June led to him proposing a suspension on war on July 8. He did not favour such violent confrontations and met with Austrian emperor Franz Joseph only days later in Villafranca.

  1. Why did the Franco-Prussian war happen and why were the Prussians able to defeat ...

    they knew the conditions and the tactics used, whilst European war for the French army of 1870 was a relatively new concept so they had to adapt and by that time Prussia would have made significant gains. France had a problem with recruiting officers in 1870, they were struggling to

  2. To what extent was German Unification driven by primarily economic forces?

    These historical statistics show the Austria had fallen behind Prussia in terms of wealth and Austria's military output was decreasing whilst Prussia's was increasing. The decline of Austria is driven by the empires failure in economics throughout the 19th century and to some extent Austria's failure in economics drives the

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work