• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Unification of Italy - Factors of Success.

Extracts from this document...


Unification of Italy Factors of Success "Various ideological, political and economic forces made the Italian unification movement in the 19th century possible." To what extent is this statement valid? (1990) ????????????????????????????????????????(1990) Ideological 1. Ideas of nationalism and liberalism had been sown??? during the French Revolution and Napoleonic Era. Firstly, Napoleon united the whole of Italian peninsula, grouping all Italians into one nation-state, letting Italians re-taste national unity after the fall of the Roman Empire. It was especially true to Italians who were proud of their glorious ancient history. Though Italy was broken again in 1815, Italians still wanted national unity again. Secondly, Napoleon's reforms like those in education, laws, administration and economy had spread ideas of liberty and equality, and encouraged the rise of middle class. 2. Before 1848 there were three ideas of unification. Yet the failure of the 1848 Revolution made it clear that both republicanism???? and papal federalism?????? were infeasible. Constitutional monarchism?????? advocated?? by Piedmont???was the only feasible??choice to unite Italy. Political A. International: 1. Despite the limitations set by the Vienna Settlement, Greece and Belgium succeeded in struggling for national independence respectively. Then both Bulgaria and Serbia managed to obtain autonomy from Ottoman Turkey. All these inspired?? the long-suppressed Italians. 2. Though the 1848 Revolution failed, the decline??of Austria looked obvious. She was unable to solve the problems of racial rivalries???? and economic stagnation?? in her great empire. Metternich??? had fled??. ...read more.


and Two Sicilies????. At last, the German unification movement contributed to the success of the final stage of Risorgimento????. In 1866 Italy allied with Prussia to defeat Austria. Bismarck rewarded Italy with Venetia????. During the Franco-Prussian War of 1870, Italy sent troops to capture?? Rome as the French garrison?? had been called back?? to go home. Thus, France, Britain and Prussia all contributed both direct and indirect help to the success of Italian unification. (Foreign help might not be absolutely reliable??. First, Piedmont had to sacrifice?? Nice and Savoy in exchange?? of the French help to oust?? Austria. It was conditional????. Second, in 1859 Napoleon III suddenly retreated from the Austro-Piedmontese War and signed the Treaty of Villafranca????? with Francis Joseph????.???. Thus, by 1859 Piedmont got Lombardy??? only) B. Domestic: 1. The Vienna Settlement of 1815 had to some extent strengthened?? Piedmont and made her a potential???? leader in the Italian unification movement. To become a buffer state??? against France, Piedmont was given additional population and extra-territories like Sardinia????, Nice, Savoy and Genoa???. The House?? of Savoy was also made the only native?? ruler on the peninsula. By comparison, the Austrian annexation of Lombardy and Venetia, the Austrian cadets?? in the three duchies (Parma??, Modena??? and Tuscany????) and the Bourbon?? rule in the Two Sicilies were unpopular. ...read more.


Yet, the work of Mazzini ought not to be neglected??. He had been able to arouse?? Italians' desire for national unity and independence in his revolutionary career??. Finally, it was Victor Emmanuel II who in 1866 allied?? with Prussia to defeat Austria and recovered Venetia, and in 1870 captured Rome when the French garrison had gone home. He completed the final stage?? of Risorgimento. Economic 1. On the Italian peninsula in 1852-70, only Piedmont was prosperous. In most of the northern Italian states, thanks to?? the Austrian exploitation??, there was heavy taxation. About one-eighth of the national revenue?? of the Austrian Empire derived from the Italian vassals??. Italian industrialists and middle class were annoyed???. 2. In the south, the Kingdom of Two Sicilies suffered from economic stagnation and land shortage??. The Bourbon family imposed?? heavy taxes but failed to make a fair distribution of lands among peasants. There was little relief?? during natural disasters??. In 1860, therefore, many people in the south welcomed Garibaldi's arrival, wishing that he could kick away the Bourbons and re-distribute lands. Sooner or later, they agreed to union?? with Piedmont in the plebiscite in the hope that the prosperity of Piedmont could stretch?? to the south. 3. Under Cavour's reform programme, Britain became the largest trading partner of Piedmont. If Piedmont was able to unite the whole of Italy, the British markets in Italy would be enlarged??. Hence, it explained partly why Britain was happy to aid in the Italian unification movement. END 1 1 ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Modern European History, 1789-1945 section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Modern European History, 1789-1945 essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Contrast The Contribution Made By Mazzini, Cavour and Garibaldi to Italian Unification

    4 star(s)

    position and policies, but also managed to use them in favor of his own aim. From a Piedmontese expansionist Cavour became a politician whose actions were concentrated on the Unification. Unlike Garibaldi and Mazzini, Cavour?s actions towards militia were minor and towards ideology there were none, for the ideas of Unification and nationalism were foreign and ridiculous to him.

  2. Reasons for Napoleon's Success (to 1807).

    It was a situation not enjoyed by any enemy general. * Military expenditure was enormous. Conquered territories were exploited to make the army self-sufficient. Troops were quartered on annexed or occupied lands. Huge indemnities were demanded from defeated countries as part of the price of peace.

  1. What were the obstacles to German Unification immediatly before the 1848 Revolutions

    massive influence because of it, the Habsburgs were always elected Emperors so the Holy Roman Empire secured Austria's position as the head of the German States, the Confederation was the Holy Roman Empire in all but name, Austria still headed it under a presidency and all German states were part of it.

  2. To what extent did Italian Unification owe its success to international aid?

    It can be said after this that Italy no longer had the aid of foreign help and had to gain independence by themselves. Cavour played a critical role along the side of Napoleon. Some people dispute this he was fighting steadfastly for unification of Italy.

  1. Compare & Contrast Cavour & Garibaldi's Contributions to the Unification.

    Both Cavour and Garibaldi put a great deal of effort into the unification process - Cavour in mostly diplomatic means and Garibaldi in mostly military. When comparing the roles of Cavour and Garibaldi in Italian unification, it is necessary to take a look at the two parties' eagerness for the cause.

  2. Who was more responsible for the success of Italian Unification up to 1861? Cavour, ...

    Garibaldi had been in exile in North America when Cavour invited him back to help in the unification of the North. At this point he had no idea that Garibaldi would then go on to unite the whole of Italy.

  1. Trotsky - Succession, Revolutionary Success, Civil War Hero, Death, Failure and End

    where Kochan claims it was 'the Bolshevik's attitude to the land question which was probably the crucial factor in the civil war'37, for the White generals could 'offer nothing more than a return to a landlord economy'38. The Bolsheviks seemed like the lesser of two evils to the Russian peasants,

  2. "Foreign success; domestic failure." How fair is this summary of Bismarck's governance of Germany

    Much action was taken from the Prussian Landtag and the Reichstag. By 1872, Catholic schools were brought directly under control of the sate and the Reichstag had forbidden the Jesuit order. In May 1873, Dr. Falk, the Prussian Minister of Religion and Education, introduced a package of measures known as the May Laws.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work