• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Use the sources and your knowledge of American history to explain why there has been so much disagreement in the USA over the effects of the New Deal

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

GCSE Coursework: USA Q8. Use the sources and your knowledge of American history to explain why there has been so much disagreement in the USA over the effects of the New Deal. (8) The New Deal was probably one of the most influential set of policies that were ever implemented in American history. The New Deal was seen as a great change, and represented two major turning points in America. One of the major turning points was in the way that America was governed, because when FDR came to power, he increased the dominance of the executive branch of government in the tri-partite Federal system that ruled America. The other major turning point was in the economic policies of America. The implementation of a new type of economic policy, known as 'Keynesian Economics' destroyed the tradition of 'Rugged individualism' in America. These two huge turning points, and the fact that such a huge amount of money was spent in America at the time, because of the New Deal policies meant that people debate how effective the New Deal was in comparison to what FDR initially had promised the American public. However, the greatest reason why the New Deal is such a hotly debated topic is the fact that it was never allowed to run its full course, because it was interrupted by the war. Because of this vast, and major interference into the New Deal, people could not class the New Deal as being a success or a failure, as the policies that it proposed were never allowed to take full effect. Many historians argue that if the New Deal was allowed to run its full course, then it would have proved to be successful and effective, while other historians argue that the war saved America, as it provided many jobs, and restored the country to full employment. The first major turning point was in the way the American government operated. ...read more.

Middle

This meant that the American market became self-saturated, as they weren't able to sell their goods abroad very easily. This coupled with the new idea of mass production using an assembly line led to saturated markets, falling profits, and to a huge growth in unemployment. In addition, during the 1920s there was a 'credit-boom'. At that time, the banks were not properly regulated by the Federal Government and lent out enormous amounts of money. At this time, new plots of land could be bought with a 10% 'binder', and shares could be bought 'on the margin' with a simple 10% down payment. As a result, banks' asset ratios became desperately low. As well as these problems, some problems in agriculture resulted in countless numbers of extra unemployed. The over-farming in the Western states of the country resulted in the 'dust bowl', which meant that the soil became very arid, and simply blew away, leaving the West in darkness, due to clouds of swirling dust. Also, an insect known as the 'boll-weevil' attacked the cotton crop in the South leaving thousands of 'share-croppers' in that area unemployed, and led to the great migration North in look for employment. In Source K, it talks about how the ordinary American would have been unable to survive the Depression without the help of Government benefits. This Source says that everyone was hit hard, even the rich, but they had something left to fall back on, but the ordinary American, and the poorer Americans had no chance of surviving, and would have most probably starved otherwise. In Source K, it says that 'The New Deal meant that ordinary people would have a better chance in life'. The Source also says that FDR understood what the situation demanded, and acted accordingly to ensure that the people worst hit by the Depression received the most help. Another Source that supports that the country was in dire need of assistance is Source D. ...read more.

Conclusion

Brogan also argues that as FDR served in Wilson's cabinet between 1912 and 1920, he just carried on where they left off, so he was not really revolutionary in the way he governed the country. FDR had similar ideas to the Progressives, as all of them wanted to help the poor in America, as well as having a united community that would help each other. After considering the arguments from both Degler and Brogan, I understand both of their ideas, and see that this reason also contributes towards why there has been so much disagreement over the effects of the New Deal. From the evidence that I have already given, you can see why there has been so much disagreement over the effects of the New Deal in the US. The New Deal marked a major turning point in the system of government that operated in America, and the economic policy that the new system of government adopted. It also marked a major turning point in the way government was run, as the Executive branch of government gained more power than the others, (Congress and the Supreme Court). Also, people saw the New Deal in two ways: as being revolutionary or evolutionary. Some people thought that the New Deal was a radical change, while others thought that it simply followed on from what the Progressives did in America, and referred to it as being evolutionary. However, the biggest reason why there has been disagreement over the New Deal's effects is because of the intervention of the war. The Second World War meant that people could not clearly see if the New Deal had been a success or a failure. As no clear answer was evident, people disagreed over how much the New Deal actually did for America. Also, as FDR died before he finished his fourth term in office, people disagreed over if the New Deal would have gone on to be a success or not, as there were two years left in which FDR could have made a lot of changes. The verdict is still undecided. Pratik Vats 10T ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level International History, 1945-1991 section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level International History, 1945-1991 essays

  1. A New America: History of America's Escape from England

    Finally, on July 12, 1793, Washington's cabinet decided to request Genet's recall. By the time the request arrived in France, the government that had appointed Genet had fallen, and the Jacobins under Robespierre were in control. As a result, his story had an odd ending.

  2. 3 presidents

    Ferdinand De Lessops (architect of the Suez Canal), asks America if they want a stake in the project for $109 million. America declines the offer because it is way too much. In 1901, America gets exclusive access and the price is lowered to $40 million and America accepts.

  1. Many peoples have contributed to the development of the United States of America, a ...

    Critics of national policy were harshly condemned. A series of East-West crises, most dramatically the Berlin Blockade of 1948-49, led to the creation (April 1949) of the NORTH ATLANTIC TREATY ORGANIZATION. The NATO alliance sought to link the United States militarily to Western Europe (including Greece and Turkey)

  2. In the past century American foreign policy has evolved with the world. Changes ...

    While this was occurring U.S. newspapers influenced the thoughts and opinions of Americans. Newspaper publishers such as William Randolph Hearst and Joseph Pulitzer printed horrifying stories of "Butcher" Weyler and his barbed wire concentration camps. These often inaccurate and exaggerating reports became known as "yellow journalism," which caused the American public to favor the rebellion (Smolinski, pg6).

  1. Describe the impact of Progressive ideals on American foreign policy from 1900 to 1917. ...

    Latin Americans questioned Roosevelt's high-handed maneuver. They also objected to the Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine. The Monroe Doctrine, announced in 1823, declared that the United States had the right to exclude foreign powers from expanding in the western hemisphere.

  2. Evaluation of key sources to address the question of increased tension

    The source is useful for many reasons, it shows Kennedy is actively researching and modifying the troops, he is taking sensible action and thinking things through which shows he takes the conflict very seriously. Kennedy obviously viewed the threat of communism to be great, he wanted to be actively involved.

  1. Select and explain the most important turning points in Senator Joe McCarthy's political career

    This appalling accusation was not popular, and Robert Welch completely wiped the floor with him. McCarthy's time was gone; he was disgraced, and lost all his influence. Explain the part played by Lee Harvey Oswald in the assassination of President Kennedy.

  2. Indian History. To what extent did large dams built before 1990 fulfil Nehru's ambitions?

    64). In the absence of other significant technology, until the Green Revolution4, irrigation was supposed be the predominant benefactor of agriculture. It was predicted by planners that with just 5cm of irrigation a year crop yields would increase by 80% (Dhawan, 1990, p.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work