• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

War communism and NEP

Extracts from this document...


War communism and NEP As soon as the Bolsheviks seized power they introduced now economic measures that gave substantial power to the proletariat and peasants in the form of their own affairs. This in a slight manner portrayed their commitment to the Marx theory of communism and an equal ideology. Even though, they wrote of the evils of capitalism, there own ideas once they came to power was rather vague. To Lenin, the party must govern the state for 'the people' and control all businesses and industry by the state for 'the people'; so that wealth could be distributed evenly to all the people. Eventually classes would disappear and a new equality class would be formed for all. To allow a degree of flexibility for the Bolsheviks, they never confirmed how long this would take so they could justify their policies and adapt to any crisis. Economic policy 1917 Initially there were some radical new policies brought in to suit the radical politics of a far left wing party. The land degree abolished all private ownership of lands without compensation. New formed land committees would distribute land to the peasants, this in effect just legalised what had already happened. In other areas such as workers in industry were giving more rights; they had the right to elect a committee that would control industrial enterprises. In the armed forces, all ranks were abolished and replaced with committees and in the legal system; the workers elected 'people courts'. ...read more.


It was clear that War communism would not survive post war Russia and a clear indication was that communism would eventually fail. The unpopularity of War communism among the peasants leads to a drastic change in policy to try and restore order from the resentment of the peasants. This caused the Tambov Rising that saw a huge number of peasants to riot of requisitioning of grain and was only put down when 50,000 red troops were ordered into the area. This pressure on the government increased as the Krontsdat revolt of March 1921 occurred. This revolt outside of Petrograd by a group of sailors was highly alarming as these men were the symbol of the October revolution as they played a huge part for the Bolsheviks in gaining control. However, the Bolsheviks propaganda machine labelled these men as White revolutionaries to try and stop lowering further of morale. The revolt was over the growing power of the government and how they treated the workers and not been static with their policies. The slogan been 'Soviets without Bolsheviks', meaning the country can survive as a equal state of communism however do not need the help of the Bolshevik party. The revolt was put down and secured by the leadership of Leon Trotsky however this caused Lenin to finally decide he needed to change his policies concerning the economy. ...read more.


Even though NEP was considered as a capitalist policy and had many critics; it still however had some support as it started Russia, to begin to recover in economic strength. In 1921 at the end of the Civil war, grain production was at only 37.6 million tons, however within just 3 years it rose to 51.4 million tons yet it still was not the original levels of 1913 or pre-war years. However this increase was an incredible boast to the Bolshevik moral as it showed this government can recover a nation state. As NEP started to cause growth within Russia, it answered many critics of Lenin so his power started to be less questioned. Nonetheless, Lenin had shown his skills as a pragmatist, willing to compromise ideology in the short term to ensure long term gain. The retreat to capitalism under NEP can also be a reflection of validity of Bolshevik ideology. Had Lenin been wrong to assume that socialism could be achieved without going through a stage of capitalist development first? The NEP can be seen as an acknowledgement that the Russian economy was not ready for socialism. Reasons for NEP * To increase food production by giving the peasant an incentive to grow more and increase moral. * To get the economy going again after the chaos of the civil war. An element of private trade would give the workers and small businesses an incentive to increase production and restart industry. * To quell any threat or opposition towards the Bolsheviks, such as during the Kronstadt mutiny or Tambov rising. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Modern European History, 1789-1945 section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Modern European History, 1789-1945 essays

  1. Lenin and the Bolshevik revolution.

    Romanian Front, and terribly weak on the Caucasian front, where the S.R.s scored their greatest victory. The extent of the differences between fronts was enormous. For example, on the Western Front the Bolsheviks won 653,430 votes, or 66.9% of the total, to the S.R.s 180,582 (18.5%).

  2. Vietnam war

    towards Vietnam was characterised by: Americanisation and escalation of involvement in a ground war; and fighting a limited war. As a whole, these policies and strategies would contribute to the greater US foreign policy of actively containing communism in Indochina through maintaining South Vietnam's independence.

  1. Soviet State

    Where as procurements and exports accounted for 15% of the harvest in 1926, by 1933 they accounted for almost 35%. In 1933, the gain was magnified by the low prices the government had to pay and one stage it resold it for four times the amount it paid to the farmers.

  2. How realistic are POW films?

    I think that this film is based more on realism that entertainment and overall would be very efficient in getting a clear view as t what the conditions were like in prisoner of war camps. The Great Escape was the third film I watched it was released in 1963.

  1. Fascism Compared to Communism

    I think it is strange that such works would go unnoticed with nobody left to watch a man with such dangerous ideas. Lenin planned his revolution while in exile in Switzerland. Then he made a deal with the German government whereby he was hid on a train and passed through enemy Germany to Russia.

  2. The Hidden Facets of Bolshevism - Friends and Foes of the Working Class.

    Politically, however, Lenin had a hard, cold, calculating brain and used all men to his own ends, disregarding their statute or allegiance. Bolshevism - From Friend to Foe It is interesting to observe how Marxist ideas came to inspire Lenin and others to seek to transform a country before 1917

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work