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Were the 1960s and 1970s a turning point for the equality of Native Americans?

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Were the 1960's and 1970's a turning point for the equality of Native Americans? The equality for Native Americans was slowly declining, with the white settlers taking over and the natives were just a hindrance and the whites began devising different ways they could be removed from their homes, land, tribes and even from society as a whole. However the 1970's were a major turning point, due to the change to become less militant in their approaches that they applied to their fight for their rights, including sit-in's, negotiation, gaining publicity and being inspired by the ever growing black power movement. This was as a new generation of Native Americans grew, and especially towards the 1940's (post war) they began to stand up and fight for their rights, religion and culture, and the 1960's and 1970's showed a predominate era for their movement in their equality. The 1960's and 1970's showed a massive growth in the Native American movement and a gain in their rights. In 1968 the natives has a 'fish-in' (which was a mock of a sit-in), in Washington supreme state court. They gave the government a list of 20 demands, including: allowing Native American leaders to address in congress and to rebuild Indian relations and protect religious freedom and cultural integrity, even though this wasn't successful. ...read more.


The increase in battles between tribes and the government, were due to the argument over land, and the fact the government showed little respect for the Native Americans and paid no attention to their civil right, whereas according to law, they had none. However in 1887, the government introduced the Dawes Act, which gave rights of citizenship to Native Americans and protection of federal law, which seems to be advancement in the equality that they were receiving. Even though this was presented in a positive move for rights for Native Americans. In 1890 tribes came together for a last stand against the government and the troops. This was called the massacre at Wounded Knee. People saw this as an Indian movement and a threat to them therefore meant the massacre of 300 innocent and unarmed natives. Through a 40 year period the policies that the government had brought in had reduced the population of the tribes by 140,000, showing a high lack of equality that natives had gained, through the early years of the white settler's battle against them. This began the political movement of Native Americans, however socially they were struggling. One main problem was the Buffalo which were being killed off by the white settlers. ...read more.


In response to the termination, the national congress of American Indians was founded in 1944, and the assimilation polices were forced upon the tribal governments, which were contradicting to their treaty of rights. In 1955 the Indian youth movement was created, to help and build up the youth of the tribes. Also in the late 1950's 19 elementary schools were built for natives, yet they were segregated and nicknamed 'special schools'. All of these events show the mental and physical build up that had been built up over the last few decades, in which the Native Americans were now fed up of putting up with. Since the white settlers had intruded upon the Native Americans, there was never any equality for them. From the years between 1865-1950's there was little progression, and any that they managed happened slowly, if not even passed at all in the end. They had been massacred, discriminated against and even patronised their culture. However the 1960's and 1970's saw a massive movement for them. Natives were shown to be weak and inferior and not wanted in society, yet in the early 1960's they began to fight and defend for themselves, using techniques inspired by the civil rights movement. Soon enough they managed to gain rights within their home tribal lands and even gain authority. ?? ?? ?? ?? ...read more.

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Response to the question

Any prospective candidates of this examination should note the structure of this essay. A clear and direct essay which examines the importance of various factors throughout. This response is effective because it compares and contrasts various factors before coming to ...

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Response to the question

Any prospective candidates of this examination should note the structure of this essay. A clear and direct essay which examines the importance of various factors throughout. This response is effective because it compares and contrasts various factors before coming to a fair conclusion of each, before an overall judgement is reached at the end.

Level of analysis

Very high. This candidate realises the importance of the given factor, however does not immediately disregard the significance of others. When analysing, one must consider a factors impact (both long and short-term), the nuber of Native Americans affected, as well as the effect on their overall living standards and civil rights.

Quality of writing

Very good standard, with a good vocabulary and choice of phrasing throughout. Equally, basic spelling, punctuation and grammar are all fine. On the whole, a solid essy and one that would no doubt achieve high marks if produced under exam conditions.

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Reviewed by garethevans 31/08/2012

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