• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

What are the complexities in 'complex emergencies'?

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

T.Tyson What are the complexities in 'complex emergencies'? The term 'complex emergencies' emerged during the late 1980's as a pseudo-euphemism for crises in the developing world. This term has often been used by governments of developing nations themselves to hide the reality of an internal conflict and to encourage indiscriminate aid distribution (i.e. aid distributed to the perpetrators of war rather than the victims of war). However, the term 'complex emergencies' implies much more than a simple euphemism for internal conflict, as the complexities of the situations that occur under this 'label' are many and varied. It is not just the actual situations themselves that are complex (i.e. the environmental disasters, civil wars, ethnic killings) it is the way in which the situations are dealt with (by the international community) that presents even more complexity to the situation. The phenomenon of complex emergencies in the developing world seems to have developed during the post-cold war period. The states of the developing world were used as the political (and military) battlefield by the capitalist and communist superpowers, leaving little scope for any kind of domestic politics reflective of the states themselves. The power vacuum left by the downfall of the Soviet bloc allowed states in the developing world a newfound political freedom to question the status quo. "The post cold war period saw a questioning of national sovereignty and a rash of internal conflicts bursting forth, most notably in the Balkans and in Africa1". The number of conflicts that emerged after the collapse of the Soviet Union were many, so much so that by 1996 10 percent of global official development assistance and one half of the UN aid budget were devoted to relief2. ...read more.

Middle

"The tendency among donors and within international organisations to treat "conflict" and "postconflict" as separate categories and distinct phases in a quest for "lasting peace" has carried with it the expectation (and planning assumption) that the formal end of armed hostilities also marks a definitive break with past patterns of violence10". The International Community has also adopted a stance of 'State-Centrism' whereby negotiations are principally conducted with the recognised, formal apparatus of the state. This ignores potential spheres of influence that may operate within the nation (such as rebel groups, warlords) and further exacerbate the situation of war. This is no more apparent than in Rwanda, where negotiations prior to the genocide were conducted chiefly with the Hutu government. It has now become apparent that within that government were the main planners of the genocide, yet the International Communities obsessive dedication to 'peace at all costs' and the narrow focus of negotiation with the 'formal' government lead to a disastrous ignorance of the genuine issues. The devastating effects of complex emergencies are multiplied by the vulnerability of the populations of developing countries. Poor infrastructure, the legacy of war, drought, famine and other 'natural' disasters serve to undermine the ability of people in the developing world. These factors not only make the devastating effects of complex emergencies worse, but they also make recovery far harder. Under such conditions (particularly war) relief work is made far more complex. What has emerged from the practise of International Development is that the agencies operating in countries under a state of complex emergency have been separating 'Relief' and 'Development' into two distinct processes. ...read more.

Conclusion

The complexities in complex emergencies vary greatly, and new facets of complexity are emerging constantly. This is perhaps the most problematic aspect of complex emergencies. As new factors emerge (AIDS, terrorism, environmental disaster) it becomes increasingly difficult for relief and development agencies to develop a consistent and coherent framework for dealing with complex emergencies. Complexity also comes (in no small amount) from the institutions themselves, and the debate on the benefits versus the drawbacks of humanitarian aid is largely inconclusive. However, it is clear that complex emergencies cannot be dealt with in a 'two dimensional' way; the plethora of complexity means that flexibility and a non-linear approach to relief and development seems to be essential for success in the future. 1 Munslow, B - 'Complex emergencies and development p.445' (the companion to development studies) 2 Forman, S and Patrick, S - 'Good intentions' p.2 3 Munslow, B & Brown, C - 'Complex emergencies: the institutional impasse' 4 News Article by AFP posted on December 21, 2000 - http://southsudanfriends.org/News/Drought2001.html 5 http://www.wfp.org/newsroom/in_depth/sudan_horn.html 6 Anderson, M B - 'Do No Harm' p.37 7 A Critical Review of Operation Lifeline Sudan: A Report to the Aid Agencies - http://hwproject.tufts.edu/publications/abstracts/croo.html 8 Berdal, M and Malone, D M - 'Greed and Grievance' 9 'Good intentions' p.3 10 Berdal, M & Malone, D M - 'Greed and Grievance' p.9 11 Munslow, B & Brown, C - 'Complex emergencies: the institutional impasse' 12 http://www.worldpeacefoundation.org/peaceenforcement.html 13 Munslow, B & Brown, C - 'Complex emergencies: the institutional impasse' 14 A review of Renewing the United Nations System by Erskine Childers and Brian Urquhart - http://www.ncrb.unac.org/unreform/selected/Childers-Urquhart.html 15 Refugee Studies Centre - http://www.rsc.ox.ac.uk 16 HIV/AIDS in Complex Emergencies - A Call for Action Dr Peter Piot, Executive Director, UNAIDS - http://www.who.int/disasters/repo/5876.doc ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level International History, 1945-1991 section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level International History, 1945-1991 essays

  1. Rationality, Educated Opinion and Peace

    is rational depends largely on whether they believe war can be a rational choice, and yet regardless of their perspectives on these two issues, they believe that progress towards avoidance of war can be ensured through changing human behaviour. Education policies thus become important, as they can shape the perceptions

  2. A Rwandan Story

    The next few days past and more and more negative rumours reached our village. There were stories that the rebel army now had half a million supporters, children included and were threatening to force the prime minister into exile and take over the country.

  1. History of the United States

    On Aug. 6, the city of Hiroshima was obliterated; on Aug. 9, the same fate came to Nagasaki. Within a week, a cease-fire (which later research suggests was reachable without atomic attack) was achieved. The political shape of the postwar world was set at the YALTA CONFERENCE (February 1945)

  2. This graduation paper is about U.S. - Soviet relations in Cold War period. Our ...

    It was time, Stalin said, to stop viewing Russia as "a passive third observer. ... It is impossible to tolerate such a situation any longer." In the end, Britain and the United States offered the token concession of giving the Soviets an innocuous role on the advisory commission dealing with

  1. Michael Moore's "Bowling for Columbine" - review.

    He also dismisses people who believe there was a single isolated cause for the events at Columbine. Moore uses visual techniques showing the popular cultures of the countries the statistics are describing, which allows the reader to imagine and appreciate the statistics as not just numbers but real people.

  2. Armed forces.

    And this dream, although not realised by a train network, certainly influenced a great deal of Central African colonisation during the period. Another spur to the railway building in the nineteenth century was the British army. They too, quickly identified the advantages in being able to move troops and supplies around in a quick and efficient manner.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work