• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

What key factors explain Germany's changing relations with Italy in the years 1933-1939?

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

What key factors explain Germany's changing relations with Italy in the years 1933-1939? Italy and Germany had never been destined to be natural allies. Italy had always been in a position where she had the option to choose her allies - in the First World War, she had had the choice between Germany and Austro-Hungary on one side, or Britain and France on the other. Even then, following alliance with the Austro-Germans, she took a year of neutrality and switched sides - there was no affinity to one side for Italy. Regardless, Hitler had long strived for alliance with Italy, as he considered it another great power in Europe, besides himself, despite the outlook of this occurring being somewhat bleak until around 1936. Between 1933 and 1936, relations between the two nations had been somewhat stale. Mounting tension in Austria in 1934, due to the Austrian Nazis causing agitation, led to the Rome protocols - a series of agreements between Austria, Hungary and Italy, calling for closer trading relations and common policy between them, amongst other factors. It also saw Austria becoming increasingly dependant on Italy for protection, in fear of the ever-hostile Germany. Despite this being against him, Hitler was still intent on forging good relations with Mussolini. ...read more.

Middle

not naturally develop from Abyssinia, and it would take a series of agreements and pressure yet until any true alliance would form. In 1936, the Anti-Comintern Pact was signed between Germany and Japan, as unification against communist influence from the Soviet Union. In reflection of the small amount of common interest between Nazi German and Fascist Italian ideology, Italy later joined the pact in 1937. Italy joining the pact formed what would come to be known as the "Axis Powers"; those who opposed the western allies in the Second World War. Another factor which brought Italy and Germany closer together around this time was the outbreak of the Spanish civil war. Under request of the Spanish government, Germany joined the war and supported General Franco's rebellion. Hitler's reasoning and argument for this action was that he wanted to save Europe from "communist barbarianism". Aside from this, Italy was also supporting Franco, leaving Hitler with the hope that a Nationalist victory would bring himself and Mussolini closer. Thankfully for Hitler, his hope became reality, and he did benefit from closer ties with Mussolini. However, there was still no real alliance between the two, and Mussolini was reluctant to forge one - he could still turn back to Britain and France. ...read more.

Conclusion

Yet, perhaps still, the fear of fighting against Germany and the prospects of Mediterranean expansion would have drawn him towards Hitler instead - after all, he did believe the western allies to be weak in comparison. The supposed political affinity between the two nations bared no benefits to their relations, as despite their few similarities, Italy and Germany were quite ideologically different. Many may say that Mussolini's invasion of Abyssinia was the key factor in determining the relationship between the two, but had it not been for Hitler's persistence following this, little would have come of the situation. Closer they may have been, but until a solid alliance was formed in the shape of the Pact of Steel, Mussolini and Hitler were not particularly close, only sharing a small amount of common interest. Should the two nations ever have really become allies? Their expansionist aims may have complimented one another, but Hitler was not one to be trusted. Had Mussolini chosen to ally with Britain and France, would the consequences of Hitler's endless striving been any less severe on Europe? Hitler may have been less confident in going about his aims, but it is likely they would have still taken place - as much as he strived for alliance with Mussolini, a lack of it would be unlikely to stop him. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Modern European History, 1789-1945 section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Modern European History, 1789-1945 essays

  1. Mussolini wanted to make Italy 'great, respected and feared'. How far had he succeeded ...

    Thus, Mussolini set up the secret police (OVRA) with the mandate of arresting anyone suspected of disloyalty to Mussolini, and the MVSN, an armed group designed to intimidate the public in whichever way they saw fit. This created an informer society; people were so scared of being caught and tortured themselves they would inform on others to allay suspicion or even advance their careers.

  2. Hitlers Germany

    The totalitarian system in the period of modern technical development can dispense with them; the means of communication alone make it possible to mechanize the lower leadership. As a result of this there arises the new type of the uncritical recipient of orders.

  1. Compare and contrast the situation in Italy 1919-22 with that in Germany 1919-29.

    Yet, the good thing was that like Italy the socialists were not that united and was going by their own schemes and wanted to reign by themselves. The Germans feared a 'red Plague' was about to hit their nation, they knew that a socialist revolution could hit any time however some historians believe otherwise.

  2. To what extent did Hitlers Policies attract working class support between 1933 and 1939?

    In this sense, the Law could be viewed as necessary in preventing cohesive opposition. In spite of an ideological insistence which convinced wealthier workers, a high proportion of industrial workers remained firmly, but impotently opposed. Mason, whose insistence on class struggle demands caution, argued the law inevitably produced a "legacy

  1. Trace and explain the relations between Germany and Russia during 1871-1914

    to work out the solutions, the Bismarck's act angered Russia as Germany was oblique in causing her defeated diplomatically. By then, the Dreikaiserbund completely broke down in 1878 after the Congress of Berlin and Russia was estranged from Germany. The Russian press condemned Bismarck and there was even an open demand for an attack on Germany.

  2. The people(TM)s community(TM). How far did Nazi policies between 1933 and 1939 go ...

    The Nazis tried to implement their ideas in 1933 making a Law for the Reduction of Unemployment, this was to reduce unemployment for women with the introduction of policies. Marriage loans were granted to women who gave up their jobs in exchange, they were no longer allowed to work in

  1. "Nazi policy towards the Jews up to 1939 was uncoordinated and erratic."

    Hitler and the Nazi party were beginning to segregate the Jews from German society. It can be seen that from the steps that the party were beginning to take that at this point the Nazi policy towards Jews was both coordinated and not erratic.

  2. "A common ideology was the single most important factor in drawing Mussolini and Hitler ...

    Therefore, it was partly the shared craving for expansion that drew Hitler and Mussolini together. Throughout the 1930s Mussolini's foreign policy became increasingly expansionist. His main aims related to countries surrounding Italy, such as Greece; Yugoslavia and Albania, which, if conquered would facilitate him to fulfil his desire of turning the Mediterranean into an 'Italian lake'.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work