• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

what was the situation in russia when bolsheviks came into power

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

The civil war over, and the Bolsheviks had established rule. However, the soviet economy was in ruins by 1921 the transport system was on the edge of collapsing. Factories were unable to obtain material that they needed, and generally industrial enterprises had ceased production and on top of that there were additional issues that were increasing the burden. Radical changes were essentially needed to be made. Was this desperate situation the cause of the kind of state that had developed by 1924? Lenin was in crisis, and needed to take radical action towards the crisis he was seeing in 1921. Grain production had fallen, famine was rampant, and hundreds were dying from diseases. The peasantry was turning out to be a major threat to the communist party, erupting in a series of revolts engulfing the countryside. Not just in the countryside, in the cities the ''harsh' winter they were facing of 1920-21 brought repeated strikes, predominantly due to the bread ration cut in cities, including Moscow and Petrograd. This produced a problem for Lenin, as the strikers in Petrograd were supported by the sailors at the Kronstadt Naval base, who in 1921 mutinied against the Bolsheviks in the hope of starting ...read more.

Middle

this Faced with the problems of economic collapse and widespread rebellion the wartime policies were abandoned which Russian society no longer wanted to put up with, so made a radical turn around which soon became to be known as the New Economic policy. The radical turn around, abolished grain requisitioning, where now meant that peasants had to give fixed proportions to the state much less than what was taken by grain requisitioning. This enabled peasants to see any surpluses on the market. The NEP allowed small-scale businesses under private ownership to be re-opened, as Lenin realised that peasants would not sell their produce unless there were goods that they wanted on sale. Another feature of the NEP was the removal of the ban on private trade which allowed food and goods to pass more easily between the countryside and towns, thus, rationing was abolished. The policy, allowed the state to keep control of large-scale heavy industries like coal, steel and oil. In addition, it retained control of the transport system. The NEP was answering and implementing radical changes to the economic crisis, and the widespread rebellion. ...read more.

Conclusion

The communists also mounted a fierce attack on the church in 1922, orders were sent out to strip churches of their precious items, apparently to help famine victims, when really they believed the church to be a rival to the government's power. The policy changes of 1921 had a major impact on the development of the state by 1924. Despite the 1924 scissors crisis the NEP had helped Russia economically and resolved the widespread rebellion. The policy led to political repression, which strengthened control. Despite the clear view that the radical changes made were partly due to Lenin's desperation in the face of crisis, it did resolve the problems but to what extent. What type of state was left in 1924? Had the policies developed a centralised state, a totalitarian state, or a bureaucratic state, what was the end result? In my view the radical changes left a totalitarian state. Yes it could be argued that what had developed was bureaucratic or centralised due to the Nationalities issue, the GPU and the other issues. But looking at the final result of the policies, I believe the state was left in greater control, was left as a 'one party government' by 1924. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Modern European History, 1789-1945 section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Modern European History, 1789-1945 essays

  1. Stalins Russia, 1924-53 revision guide

    War production * Nikolai Voznesensky, who had been head of Gosplan since 1938, was put in charge of war production in July 1941. * Military needs were given first priority and civilian materials fell from two-thirds to one third of national production.

  2. Causes of show trials + purges of 1930s.

    This link between the Soviets and the Provisional government was strengthened after the April crises following Milyukov's note on 18th April. Milykov's note was a document which proclaimed Russia's commitment to the Allied war effort and the continuation of war against Germany to the extent of gaining territory, this lead

  1. Soviet State

    Total grain production declined and did not return to the 1928 levels until the late 1930's. The peasants' slaughter of almost half their livestock was a catastrophe for an agricultural country and condemned a whole generation of Russians to a meatless diet.

  2. Free essay

    Examine the impact of policy changes of 1921 on the development of the Soviet ...

    They won only 25% of the seats with 177 votes and the Socialist Revolutionaries huge 410 votes. Lenin simply forcibly closed the constituent assembly in which a Sovnarkom directive authorised this. The next day Lenin's response was ruthless, as he sent the Red Guards in and they dissolved the assembly with an "act of violence."

  1. The enormous role that Trotsky played in the success of the Bolsheviks up until ...

    He was not afraid to be in the midst of the fighting. He also made extensive and effective use of propaganda to whip up enthusiasm about the war, and in just three years, the army had grown to a massive 5 million men.

  2. Outline the distinctive features of the major political groups vying for power in Russia ...

    Government, and the Congress of Soviets comprising the soviets of most major cities including Petrograd. This is because both groups had parts of the major parties in them and were more powerful than the parties on their own. In addition they had legitimacy to rule whereas a single party did not.

  1. The Impact of Stalins Leadership in the USSR, 1924 1941. Extensive notes

    7. Population bombarded with constant propaganda. Nationalities: In 1939, almost 100 million out of 170 million Soviet citizens were not Russian. The USSR was made up of many states, Ukraine, Georgia and more. In theory they could leave the federation if they wanted to do so, but in practice it was harder as Stalin? exercise control from the centre.

  2. 1798 Irish Rebellion notes

    The United Irish societies of Dublin and Belfast developed along very different lines. 4. The former, essentially a propagandist debating club whose members' dramatic references to contemporary France disguised a firm adherence to the constitutional theories of Locke in preference to the democratic arguments of Paine, proved quite unable to establish daughter societies elsewhere in the South.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work