• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

What were the main problems facing the governments of Britain, France and Germany at the end of the war? Which government coped best?

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Tim Brooker AA312 R8413113 TMA 04 Question:- What were the main problems facing the governments of Britain, France and Germany at the end of the war? Which government coped best? When the hostilities of World War I finally ceased on the 11th of November 1918, Europe was a very different place in comparison to that of 1914. Those in government were faced with a different set of problems to those they had encountered during the long period of war. In addition to these problems the shockwaves sent out by the 1917 Russian Revolution caused grave concerns within all the European governments. Each of the three countries being studied here had their own individual problems to face as soon as the end of hostilities was declared, but they also shared a number of similar problems to varying degrees. A) The expansion of mass production techniques for arms and ammunition, the growth of factories and organised labour had given the trades unions more power and influence. All three countries saw membership numbers of trade unions increase dramatically either during or immediately after the war and with this came greater working-class militancy. B) The damage caused by the war to the populations of the combatant countries, the destruction of agricultural land and the restructuring of industries. Due to this industrial restructure, "Europe's manufacturing production in 1920 was only three-quarters that of 1913". ...read more.

Middle

Some had seen the fall of the Kaiser as a point from which great social changes may come about, using the Bolshevik revolution in Russia as an example. Tim Brooker AA312 R8413113 TMA 04 German supporters of this ideal formed the German Communist Party (K. P. D.) and challenged the provisional government over its preoccupation in stabilising the country rather than the implementation of radical reforms. Instead of taking part in the elections of December 1918, the KPD was involved in an 'uprising' in Berlin before the elections could take place. Descriptions of this 'uprising' range from "a minor civil war" (Roberts), to "an ill-considered and chaotic demonstration" (Martin Kitchen Between The Wars, 1988, page 162). Whatever its extent, the 'uprising' was put down brutally by the newly formed Freikorps and the army. Those to the left of the political spectrum were not the only one's to challenge the provisional government, as those on the right of German politics posed a greater threat of revolution to the provisional government than their opposite numbers on the left. At the core of the right's beliefs was a desire to return to the Conservative German nationalism last seen under Bismarck, they feared that the Communists would gain power and oppose the peace terms. They also hated the Treaty of Versailles, believing that Germany had not lost the war, but been stabbed in the back the politicians in power at the time. ...read more.

Conclusion

Again the treatment of protesters in the situations was harsh and brutal. At the end of the war the main problem facing Britain, Germany and France was that of regaining internal stability, in the face of revolution. This was achieved by a conciliatory attitude towards social and industrial relations and the use of the 'strong arm' of the law to maintain civil order. Europe did not returning socially to its place in 1914 but began to evolve into what Maier called a 'corporatist' Europe, "consensus, therefore, was achieved not so much through parliaments, which Tim Brooker AA312 R8413113 TMA 04 depended from time to time on the approval of the electorate, but through continued bargaining between the state and major organised interests." (Unit 14 page 6). This essay has spent more time considering the position of Germany than that of France or Britain, as in my view, the German provisional government's achievement of, maintenance and reinforcement of internal stability of the country which socially suffered the most adverse effects of the war, meant that it coped the best in the post-war situation. BIBLIOGROPHY Open University, AA312 Total War and Social Change: Europe 1914-1955, Primary Sources 2: Interwar And World War 2. Secondary Sources Book 2 The Impact Of World War 1. Book 3 Between Two Wars. Total War And Historical Change: Europe 1914-1955. Europe 1880-1945 J.M. Roberts ?? ?? ?? ?? 1 ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level International History, 1945-1991 section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level International History, 1945-1991 essays

  1. Why did tension increase in Europe between 1900 and 1914?

    * The Rhineland - this was to be demilitarised, no soldiers or military equipment were to be kept within thirty miles of the east bank of the river. The Allies would occupy it for fifteen years. * The Saar - this was to be occupied for fifteen years and France

  2. Women and social change - To what extent did World War One effect womens ...

    over the Daimler motor car works for padding costs on war-production contracts. Governments tended to favor large, centralized industries over smaller ones. The war was a stimulus towards grouping companies into larger firms. When resources became scarce, nonessential firms, which tended to be small, were simply closed down.

  1. This graduation paper is about U.S. - Soviet relations in Cold War period. Our ...

    Whether or not Roosevelt would have accepted Harriman's analysis, to Truman the ambassador's words made eminent sense. The international situation was like a poker game, Truman told one friend, and he was not going to let Stalin beat him. Just ten days after taking office, Truman had the opportunity to play his own hand with Molotov.

  2. Which of the following problems do you consider to have been the most serious ...

    After the war problems for new immigrants in the post-war depression got worse. Ghettos of immigrants appeared in the big Northern cities of America which got a reputation for being very dangerous places. These Ghettos were places of violent crime, drunkenness and prostitution.

  1. Why was there a revolution in Feburary 1917?

    After the success in Petrograd the revolution spread throughout the country, following the same basic course as it did in the capital.

  2. Describe the historical claims of Britain and Argentina to the Falkland Islands

    Every person, whether working in the navy, air or infantry force knew what their role was and exactly what they had to do. Even when they were so far away the armed services were still just as efficient and professional as if they were fighting on their own turf.

  1. Why did Germany lose the war?

    In July the Third Battle Of Ypres began. The British detonated huge mines that destroyed German artillery positions and killed 10,000 German soldiers in a stroke. In 1917 Russia was out of the war due to a revolution that resulted in the Treaty Of Brest-Litovsk being signed. Germany could now transport thousands of troops back to the western front.

  2. To what extent was the Civil War the main factor in the Bolshevik

    This perception is shared by other modern historians too as Stephen Lee states "The Red - White Civil War was largely over by late 1920...But...the Bolsheviks were now confronted with a second Red - Green Civil War"5 which backs the evidence against this traditional Marxist view as the Reds versus

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work