• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Which of these judgements best Reflects the State of Imperial Russia in 1914? By 1914 all the Signs were there that Imperial Russia was heading towards a Major Confrontation between intransient Tsarism and the Forces of Change or

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Which of these judgements best Reflects the State of Imperial Russia in 1914? "By 1914 all the Signs were there that Imperial Russia was heading towards a Major Confrontation between intransient Tsarism and the Forces of Change" or "The Prospects of Stable evolutionary Development in 1914 were good until Foreign Affairs Intervened" Hanoom 13Sh The 1905 revolution had tested the strength of Tsarism at its core. However, the survival of the regime was due to the fact that whilst in 1905 the Russian rebels were confidant enough to voice their discontent they were not on a mission to usurp tsarist authority. It can be argued that whilst there was an active petitioning for change in 1905 by 1914 many critics came to the realisation that real change under despotic and authoritarian Tsarism was a long way off. But whether or not this itself had set Russia on an irreversible path against the established system is debatable. The main argument against the intervention of foreign affairs being instrumental in stopping Russia's prospects of stable evolutionary development is that Nicholas did not keep to one of the key concessions of the October Manifesto by a granting constitutional monarchy. Nicholas had absolutely no intention of handing power to the people and the Duma was the creation of an urgent need to appease the 1905 rebels. ...read more.

Middle

But partly the innate conservatism of the Russian people meant that this lack of strong alternative leadership to Nicholas in 1914 was something that resulted in any critics of the regime being unsure of whom to support. The opposition was inherently disunited and the alliances of different social groups were hard to fathom in a society where traditional division had always stood between the upper and lower classes. Another explanation for the failure of groups like the Kadets and the Liberals to gain the active support of the public is that their concern for securing a constitution subordinated the social welfare of the people who did not feel that their cause was being fought for. By 1914 the opposing parties to the tsarist regime were much less powerful than in 1905. The liberals were no longer seen as revolutionary and Witte's liberal concessions had split the opposition. Therefore anyone who wanted change did not think it achievable through a weak, liberal Duma with little influence. Consequently supporting the Bolsheviks in 1917 was a powerful alternative as it empowered a group of extremists willing to make vigorous changes. During the years 1908-1914 Russia was moving quickly forward, trying to develop its stagnant and backward economy. ...read more.

Conclusion

This was exacerbated by a power struggle between the Duma and Rasputin who was seen as manipulating the tsarina and steering the country closer to catastrophe. The war was the force, which interrupted Russia's progression into a more Western and developed society with better standards of living and equality. On the home front the food shortages, starvation in the big cities, coal shortages in the merciless Russian winter and inflation ensured a demoralised and exasperated population. The hopeless situation in Russia would later spark what was to be the end of tsarist Russia as Nicholas survived as long as he maintained the loyalty of the army and the Cossacks. Had it not been for the war these key groups would have remained loyal to Nicholas, especially due to the progressive and westward looking path that Russia was on. It is likely that at the end of Nicholas' reign the Duma would have become a far more influential body and that his royal successors would have paid greater heed to the advice of the assembly. Obviously it cannot be denied that a stronger and more prudent ruler than Nicholas would have survived the war, at the cost of making small concessions and curbing his autocratic power. Whilst this may have weakened the monarchy significantly it would have more importantly ensured its survival well into the 20th century. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Other Historical Periods section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Other Historical Periods essays

  1. Revision Table - Tudor Rebellions

    * Government agreed to negotiate with rebels. * Aske and ringleaders rounded up, tried in London and then executed. * Rents fixed and subsidy stopped. * Some monasteries re-established. * Rebels hung in Carlisle and Cumberland. * Aske --> member of the gentry, a local lawyer.

  2. How and why did the Bolsheviks gain power in 1917?

    The Tsarist government's attitude, despite the Dumas willingness for reform, rejected any form of change to the system; and refused to establish a democratic state, keeping with the autocratic system. The Bolsheviks saw, and it can be agreed on that, while standing his ground on his autocratic rule; the Tsar

  1. To what extent did WW1 cause the collapse of Tsarism?

    Due to the overcrowding, however, factories were packed full of workers creating poorer, cramped working conditions. It was said by Karl Marx that the Proletariat (working class) would rise up against the Bourgeoisie (factory owners) and revolution would begin and he was correct.

  2. What was the short term significance of the Amritsar Massacre?

    Thus, I have tried to see how different Indians have reacted differently to the Amritsar Massacre.

  1. The First English Civil War

    Bristol, the second port of the kingdom, was their objective. On 26 July, four days from the opening of the siege, it was in their hands. Waller, with the beaten remnant of his army at Bath, was powerless to intervene. The effect of this blow was felt even in Dorset.

  2. The outbreak of the 1905 revolution was due to the grievances of the peasants ...

    He also followed his father policy of Russiafication. At this time Russia was made up of a large amount national minority. This policy out emphasis on all things Russian, it became the first official language. This coursed dissatisfaction an extensive portion of the Russian people.

  1. Despite frequent changes in policy, Russian and Soviet governments were spectacularly unsuccessful in securing ...

    Industry picked up, but there were still issues and it was the common man who had to pay. The economy still suffered, although, arguably, not as much as it would have done without Witte. However, the tertiary sector also contributed to the economy.

  2. To What Extent Was Russia Modernised During the Personal Reign of Peter the Great? ...

    To try and convince the Russian people to become more modernised he published books such as ?the honourable mirror of youth?. These books showed the Russian people how to act in a civilised way. There were two problems with this policy, one was that the Russian people did not believe

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work