• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Why did Britain not establish an independant Palestine jointly ruled by Arabs and Jews

Extracts from this document...


Why did Britain not establish an independent Palestine ruled jointly by Jews and Arabs? State your answer explaining your findings and provide evidence supporting evidence. (30 marks) Britain was unable to establish an independent Palestine ruled jointly by Jews and Arabs due to varying factors that acted as obstacles. Among these were the conflicting interests of each groups concerned: the Arabs wanted independence, the Jews a national homeland and the British imperialist rule and the fact that initially Britain did not necessarily seek to establish a completely independent Palestine . Moreover other factors such as World War II shifted attention away from the attempt and garnered sympathy and support for a separate Jewish state rather than a joint one with the Arabs. Yet perhaps the main reason was unsolvable differences between Jews and Arabs. When Britain took over the mandate to govern Palestine in 1919, it did so in a compromised position by promising the Arabs independence and the Jews a homeland, this restricted its attempts to establish a jointly ruled Palestine. In the correspondence sustained by Shariff Hussein and Sir Henry McMahon, from mid 1915 to January 1916, the High Commissioner expressed that the Britain guaranteed support for Arab independence. However in the letters the issue of boundaries and limits was handled rather ambiguously , with Britain maintaining certain areas deemed vital to the interests of the empire, namely the region of Palestine. ...read more.


This and a growing sense of Palestinian nationalism meant that the Arab population was reluctant to share an independent state with Jews, when they felt the land as rightfully theirs, this meant they stubbornly refused to share it in any form. Perhaps the greatest obstacle for a joint Arab and Jew state was the hostility existent between both. Arabs were angered by an increase in Jewish immigration brought on by the 3rd aliyah between 1920 an 1924 in which over 35 000 Jews from Russia, Poland and Romania entered Palestine. These were generally well educated people with secular Zionist beliefs and socialist views , they were more intent on establishing a Jewish homeland .Land was bought from Arab landowners, many of whom were absent landlords, and farms were created with an emphasis on establishing settlements that would operate exclusively on Jewish labor. This aggravated the Arabs since Arabs who had worked the land as tenants were evicted since only Jews were employed to work. Hostilities increased and resulted in several riots that broke out in 1921 and later in 1929 as Jewish landownership and immigration increased reaching 160 000 Jews in 1929 compared to 60 000 in 1919. Tensions kept building up until finally they came to a head way in April 1936 when the Arabs rebelled. The British government seemed unable to control the situation and decided to restrict Jewish immigration which naturally enraged the Jewish Community in face of the growing anti Semitism in Europe. ...read more.


Furthermore the British were receiving worldwide criticism especially after the Exodus incident in 1947, in which the British authorities denied entrance to a ship carrying 4500 Jewish refugees from Europe to Palestine and was sent back to Europe. This garnered further sympathy for the Jewish community which meant that public view was in favor of a separate state for Jews rather than a joint one between Arabs and Jews. The British felt they could no longer appease either Jew, Arabs or worldwide opinion, devastated by the war, with food shortages and rationing at home it was hardly feasible to maintain troops in Palestine. In May 1948 Britain decided it would hand over its mandate of Palestine to the Unites Nations, hence it was unable to establish an independent Palestine ruled jointly by Arabs and Jews. Thus the evidence presented demonstrates that initially the British government was unwilling to establish an independent Palestine since it would jeopardize its interest in the region and had compromised its position to both Jews and Arabs with the Hussein-McMahon Letters and later with the Sykes-Picot Agreement and finally the Balfour Declaration. Furthermore the conflicting interests of Arabs and Jews, their uncompromising position and the hostility existent between the two stressed that reconciliation was practically impossible. This coupled with the British government's inability to neither cope or handle the situation proves and demonstrates the difficulty and the intractable nature of uniting in one government and state two profoundly different ,deeply passionate and antagonistic peoples. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Other Historical Periods section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Other Historical Periods essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    To what extent was warfare between Britain and France the main contributory factor in ...

    3 star(s)

    Britain had been using a parliamentary system for a significant amount of time and the majority of the conflicts in from this period resulted in British victories. Whether or not this was down to the absolute monarchy France still employed remains to be seen, but the system itself was a lot more efficient.

  2. How effective were National Government of 1931-1939 in dealing with the problem of unemployment? 20 ...

    the wages subsidy to be renewed while negotiations continued. However, Samuel warned that subsequent negotiations would probably mean a reduction in wages. These terms were accepted by the TUC negotiating committee, but were rejected by the executive of the Miners' Federation. On the 11th May, at a meeting of the Trade Union Congress General Committee, it was decided to

  1. The Third English Civil War

    on July 16, he began the execution of a brilliant and successful manoeuvre. A force from Queensferry, covered by the English fleet, was thrown across the Firth of Forth to North Ferry. Lambert followed with reinforcements, and defeated a detachment of Leslie's army at the Battle of Inverkeithing on the July 20.

  2. Why Were Some Forms Of Nationalism More Successful Than Others In Achieving Concessions From ...

    O'Mahony, in America, founded the Fenian Brotherhood, and the movement gradually began to gain support, yet it never had the support of the clergy. The attempted uprising in 1867 was a failure, yet the Clerkenwell bombing of 1867 contributed to substantial anti-Irish feeling in England, and prompted Gladstone to seek

  1. The First English Civil War

    Rupert was on the right of the King's army with the greater part of the horse; Lord Lindsey and Sir Jacob Astley in the centre with the foot, while Henry Wilmot, Earl of Rochester (with whom rode the Earl of Forth, the principal military adviser of the King)

  2. The Indian Mutiny

    - The EIC and British must be more in touch with Indian opinion. - More powerful Indians must be treated with more consideration and should be attracted to work with the British. - Greater care should be taken by the British to not to interfere with established social and cultural practices and traditions.

  1. Assess the importance of humanitarian and missionary activity in creating a larger African Empire ...

    It was his work that earned the support of the British public on the Empire as his work spread Christianity throughout Africa. Furthermore, 19th century Victorian Britain was very religious and the Church promoted the idea of missionary work in Africa.

  2. In the context of India in the 1840s to 1947, how far can independence ...

    British rule created a ?country that? fulfilled the aspirations of Indians, rather than colonial designs of what a modern India ought to be.?[11] Yet from the 1870?s, the emerging Indian middle class started to recognise the concept of nationalism with events unfolding in Ireland.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work