• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Why did Cromwell become Lord Protector In December 1653?

Extracts from this document...


Charlie Hanson Why did Cromwell become Lord Protector In December 1653? After completing the defeat of Scotland Cromwell returned to London and the problems caused by the form of government under which England, and now Scotland as well, was ruled. The Parliament, of course, continued its policy of making the English Church and the English society as narrowly Puritan as possible, restricting the authorization for the election of members of Parliament and maintaining the size of the Rump Parliament itself. It was in no rush to re-establish the broadly based Parliament that had first challenged and successfully subdued King Charles I. The new system of government with its Council of State was proving to be unworkable as far as Cromwell was concerned. His experiences with the Army throughout the Civil Wars, in England, Ireland and Scotland had proven to him the benefits of strong executive power. He could now understand the dead King's point of view in his own frustrating dealings with the Rump Parliament. That wasn't any consolation to the slain King, of course, but it does give us some further insight into Cromwell's views. ...read more.


he asked, and then answered contemptuously: 'Take it away.' Then he dismissed the Council of State as well. The so-called 'Long Parliament' was finally ended. Yet another coup had taken place in England. Oliver Cromwell was dictator without even a submissive Parliament to which he had to answer. One thing the Rump Parliament had done that must have pleased the rapidly inflating ego of Oliver Cromwell was to grant him an allowance of four thousand pounds per year and the gift of Hampton Court palace as well. Despite his Puritan disregard for flamboyant displays he willingly accepted both and took to wearing the clothes befitting one of such high station. It doesn't take very much to corrupt people, even those who might think of themselves as incorruptible. And Oliver certainly thought of himself in those terms. Apparently there was little or no dissent from Cromwell's latest actions. Some thought that they would eventually lead back to monarchy. Ultimately they were correct. Others, the more deeply religious Puritans, called, 'Fifth Monarchists' those who expected Christ to return and reign over the world would be disappointed when Jesus Christ failed to make his appearance. ...read more.


Cromwell had created another fiend that he couldn't control. This, too, had to be ended. And it was on 12 December 1653 the 'Barebones Parliament', under pressure from the army, voted its own dissolution. The army then presented Oliver Cromwell with a solution to the political problems facing the country. This was a document entitled, 'Instrument of Government', by which he would become the, 'Lord Protector'. It also proposed a new Parliament elected on a strictly property qualification contract, excluding royalists and Catholics, and another Executive Council to advise both the Parliament and the Protector. Cromwell didn't hesitate in accepting the proposal as a 'Constitution' for the Commonwealth of England, Ireland and Scotland. It was England's first and to date its only written Constitution. Of course, it wouldn't have been created without the knowledge and consent of the person who was to be its nominated leader. Cromwell couldn't refuse leadership, so on 16 December 1653; Oliver Cromwell took the oath as Lord Protector. A new era was about to begin in a land still torn by political, social and religious differences and bitterness. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level British History: Monarchy & Politics section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level British History: Monarchy & Politics essays

  1. Was Oliver Cromwell a hero or a villain?

    -*8. Nevertheless, Cromwell believed that he was killing a traitor who had previously betrayed parliament by abandoning democracy, and that he was delivering the country from the evil of Charles. In ways, Charles' trial was fair, although the outcome was almost definite even before the trial had started.

  2. Assess the validity of the view that the Rump and Barebones parliaments had no ...

    The majority within the Rump are now considered, due to Underdown and Worden, not as ideological republicans with the most startling illustration of this being that 22/41 members of the Council of State in 1649 would not take an oath which declared they approved of the regicide.

  1. An unmitigated disaster. How valid is this assessment of Oliver Cromwells experiment with the ...

    rule being given the title 'swordsmen and decimators' not because of their activities such as shutting down sporting events and ale houses, and this military nature represents and symbolises Cromwell's military dictatorship, which was an 'unpopular interregnum state'. Over the course of the last three and a half centuries, succeeding

  2. History Independant study - Oliver Cromwell

    All of these points can be demonstrated through the ascension of Henry VII to the throne. Henry's claim to the throne was extremely tenuous and based on illegitimate lineage, almost a century old. Despite this, because of his right of conquest and him having 'mustered enough support to win the

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work