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Why did the civil war break out in 1642?

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Why did the civil war break out in 1642? Charles I ruled England without calling Parliament for 11 years between 1629 and 1640. Although some people were unhappy with changes in religion that he made and a lot more were unhappy about paying extra taxes like Ship Money, there was no sign of a rebellion against the king. Then, in 1637, Charles made a mistake which triggered of a chain of events leading to civil war. As well as being King of England, Charles I was also King of Scotland. Scotland was a separate country with its own laws and parliament. In 1637 Charles tried to introduce the religious changes that he had made in England. The Scottish church was more puritan than the Church of England so when Charles tried to impose the English Prayer Book in Scotland the Scots thought this was much too Catholic and the first time it was used in St Giles cathedral in Edinburgh there was a riot. ...read more.


Instead of attacking the King directly, they blamed everything on his 'evil ministers' - the Earl of Strafford and the Archbishop of Canterbury, William Laud. In November 1640 Parliament drew up a list of demands. They were that Charles' "evil ministers" must be punished; new ministers must be appointed, some of whom should come from Parliament; the King should get rid of Courts such as Star Chamber which allowed him to lock up opponents without a proper trial; Parliament must meet regularly; there should be no taxes without Parliament's agreement; the changes to the Church of England made by Archbishop Laud should be got rid of. By the summer of 1641 Charles had agreed to many of Parliament's demands. The Triennial Act said that Parliament had to meet at least every three years; the Long Parliament could not be dissolved without its agreement; the Tunnage and Poundage Act only allowed Charles to collect customs duties for two more months; the courts of Star Chamber and High Commission were abolished and Ship Money was made illegal. ...read more.


In 1642 Parliament proposed to get rid of bishops once and for all and in March 1642 Parliament demanded control of the army, Charles refused to give in but they took control of it anyway. In June 1642 Parliament presented its final list of demands, called the Nineteen Propositions. Amongst these were that Parliament must agree all state business including foreign policy and religion; all ministers must be approved by Parliament; Parliament must control the education of the King's children to make sure they were brought up Protestants and Parliament must approve who they married to make sure they did not marry Catholics; the Church must be changed to be how Parliament wanted and Parliament would control the army. Charles would not agree to the Nineteen Propositions - they would put an end the Royal Privilege and give the power to run the country to Parliament. Civil war was now inevitable. In the summer of 1642 both King and Parliament began to organise armies. On August 22 1642 King Charles raised his standard against Parliament in Nottingham. It was the sign for war to begin. Susy Langsdale ...read more.

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