• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Why did the war against Austria in 1859 result in the unification of most of Italy by 1861?

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Why did the war against Austria in 1859 result in the unification of most of Italy by 1861? The war against Austria was a war long anticipated for by Napoleon. Napoleon felt that he must do something for both Italy and France; he must defeat Austria. Many say that due to Orsini's assassination attempt and his letter pleading for Italy to gain independence, Napoleon decided to step in. Anyhow, on 21st July 1858 Cavour and Napoleon met at Plombieres, where they hatched the plot to try to lure Austria into war. They had very differing motives but both wanted rid of Austrian dominance in Italy. Cavour knew that Piedmont needed outside help, and that there was no hope of expelling Austria from northern Italy without the French Army. Napoleon believed that war with Austria was the only possibility for seeking unification; seeing as Austrian dominance was so attendant in Italy. However Napoleon knew that he could not declare war on Austria because Austria might well find allies, as Europe would be sympathetic towards an unprovoked attack. Prussia, in particular, made it clear that they would support their German neighbour, and even Britain (usually allies with Italy) ...read more.

Middle

Nonetheless, it is most noticeable that the treaty of Zurich was significant in the process of unification, regarding Lombardy and the Central Duchies. Elsewhere, with Cavour out of office for nine months, the war had had a surprisingly good effect on Piedmont. His work as prime minister had been successful to say the least, as Piedmont began to expand greatly. In early 1860, in Tuscany the population voted for annexation by Piedmont. However the voting was carefully rigged by Cavour . Likewise in Emilia (consisting of Modena, Parma and the Romagna in the Papal States), Cavour organised rigged voting in support of union with Piedmont. After the votes were counted, in Turin decrees were published declaring Tuscany and Emilia as part of the Kingdom of Piedmont. Undoubtedly, the new borne power and expansion of Piedmont, including its annexation with Emilia and Tuscany; significantly raised hopes and expectations of uniting Italy. Furthermore, the war with Austria helped to unify Italy, in regard to the states of Naples and Sicily. Garibaldi, despite having left Italy over ten years ago, was deeply distressed upon hearing news of Nice and Savoy being ceded to France. ...read more.

Conclusion

Many of the "thousand" men (it was infact now around 60,000 men) were in support of Mazzini's ideals. Which meant that they were opposed to the Church. Cavour and Victor Emmanuel were fearful that these men would run free of Garibaldi's control and cause Rome to become a progressive state. Therefore the Pope and Cavour prevented any chance of unification of Rome. It was a very delicate and tricky situation for all Cavour and Garibaldi alike, as the French forces were still and Rome and they were fearful of trifling with France. Therefore in 1861 Rome remained un-unified. Also, the war against Austria ultimately, did not result in the unification of Venetia. Under the terms of the treaty of Zurich, Venetia was to be left for Austrian domination. In conclusion, the war against Austria in 1859 resulted in the unification of the major parts of Italy. Italy was so very close to ultimate unification by 1861 as all states except for Rome and Venetia had been united under Victor Emmanuel. Also Italy was considered practically unified as the aftermath of the war had seen the expansion of Piedmont to the whole of the new Kingdom of Italy. ?? ?? ?? ?? Paris Fisher-Aziz ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Modern European History, 1789-1945 section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Modern European History, 1789-1945 essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Contrast The Contribution Made By Mazzini, Cavour and Garibaldi to Italian Unification

    4 star(s)

    What is worth noticing in Garibaldi is that unlike Mazzini he never gave up and was prone to go for a compromise and fought for the united Italy, not for a vision. A great example of such a political compromise is the fact that at Teano on 18th of February

  2. What had Garibaldi contributed to Italian Unification by 1861

    Garibaldi is often seen with his Redshirts with the present flag of Italy at his side. Evidence for this is the painting "Garibaldi with the Red Shirts in the Battle of Calatfirmi," this shows that he was not interested in his own interests but rather the concept of Italy as more than a 'Geographic Expression'.

  1. Did Cavour or Garibaldi contribute more to the unification of Italy?

    Comparing Garibaldi and Cavour they were complete opposites. Cavour was a politician and sophisticated intelligence which caused him to take extreme consideration before any action, Garibaldi on the other hand was more extreme he would take direct action as long as he thought it would help the cause.

  2. Compare & Contrast Cavour & Garibaldi's Contributions to the Unification.

    It is certainly true that the cause was there for both, but the ways they approached it and the way it came about was fall less well planned than the 'beautiful legend'. Garibaldi's devotion to Victor Emmanuel and his recognition of the king as the sole ruler of the new

  1. Who was more responsible for the success of Italian Unification up to 1861? Cavour, ...

    However the prospect once it hit him of a stable unified Italian nation appealed to him. So when invited to offer support he was more than willing. "He saw himself as a leader of the people's of Europe in their search for freedom and national identity."

  2. How and why was most of Italy unified by 1861?

    Their main aim was to expel Austria from Italy. They wanted to gain Nice and Savoy as part of Italy and for Piedmont to become richest and most dominant state in Italy. Cavour and Napoleon had to provoke Austria into war to put their operation into practice.

  1. The Holocaust was the result of Hitlers long held grand design to pursue a ...

    Martin Broszat argues that, until the autumn of 1941, the aim was still to deport the Jews. It was only the failure of the Russian campaign and Nazi?s inability to cope with the millions of deported Jews building up in Poland that led to initiatives which gained Hitler?s approval.

  2. Was Napoleon a dictator?

    A state controlled church could be a form of indoctrination whereby Napoleon could keep control over one of the most important things in peoples lifes. It meant that Catholicism was no longer associated with the royalist cause but now with Napoleon.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work