• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Why Were Some Forms Of Nationalism More Successful Than Others In Achieving Concessions From The British Government In The Period 1800-1900?

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Why Were Some Forms Of Nationalism More Successful Than Others In Achieving Concessions From The British Government In The Period 1800-1900? Constitutional Nationalism, which although prevailed over revolutionary and Cultural Nationalism throughout the period of 1800-1900, combined to spearhead a driving and determined nationalist force campaigning against the diverse British Governments of the period for Emancipation, Repeal of the Union, Home Rule amongst other concessions. Constitutional Nationalism, embodied by O'Connell, was known for legislatively campaigning for concessions; Cultural Nationalism was an evolutionary process while Revolutionary Nationalism was essentially revolutionary known for its commitment to violence and its predominant legacies which were left behind by numerous martyrs of the cause. Daniel O'Connell, himself, was the protagonist of the emancipation story, who was followed by Charles Stuart Parnell in the late 1870s in the Home Rule and Land War sagas of the closing stages of the nineteenth century. Constitutional Nationalism sought greater autonomy for Ireland within the British Empire through gradual, peaceful change. This was personified in O'Connell's clear dismissive attitude of violence in his Emancipation and Repeal movements, which ultimately contributed to his downfall in 1843 at Clontarf. The second unquestioned leader of Irish politics in the nineteenth century, Parnell, was more open to an alliance with the revolutionaries, shown by the 'New Departure', his alliance with the Fenians. ...read more.

Middle

Charles Gavan Duffy, one of the founders of The Nation was himself a well known Irish poet. However, in a year of revolutions throughout the continent, such as in Italy, Germany, Austria and France, The Battle of Widow McCormack's Cabbage Patch is Ireland's sole contribution to the Year of Revolutions, where Smith O'Brien's uprising ended in nothing more than a skirmish with local police in a cabbage patch. In the aftermath of the severity of the Famine, the "Repeal Rent" dried up, and O'Connell died in May 1847. His death marked the end of a period in Irish politics. The Famine, which has been referred to as "passive genocide" due to England's ineffectualness in dealing with it, had a profound influence on later political developments. It left a feeling of resentment against the whole system of government in Ireland and created a legacy distinctly similar to that of some of the martyrs of Revolutionary Nationalism, as it left, ingrained in the mind, a resentment of the British occupation of Ireland. Importantly, two of the Young Ireland members involved, James Stephens and John O'Mahony escaped punishment and both fled to Paris. O'Mahony went to America in 1853 to try to gain support for another uprising from those who had left Ireland during the Famine and Stephens returned to Ireland in 1856 to found the Irish Republican Brotherhood, with the sole aim of independence on its agenda. ...read more.

Conclusion

Yet, the incident was turned to his advantage as the obvious sincerity of his reaction made a good impression in Britain. By the end of 1882, Parnell's position in Ireland was stronger than it had ever been before which led to Gladstone's conversion to Home Rule and his first Home Rule Bill was only defeated by 343 to 313. Yet, for the next 20 years, the governments were dominated by the Conservatives. Cultural Nationalism was more specifically concerned with reminding Irishmen of their heritage and was closely linked to the Young Ireland movement especially. The GAA was merely preoccupied with the advancement of Gaelic sports and the Gaelic League was concerned with the preservation of the language itself. Revolutionary Nationalism was for the most part ineffective as such examples as Emmet's 1803 rising, the Young Ireland 1848 insurrection and the Fenian rising of 1867 serve to illustrate. It was only when Revolutionary Nationalism was combined with Constitutional did both reach the potential of achieving concessions from the British Government. O'Connell, to an extent, managed this with his military rhetoric and brinkmanship in the Emancipation struggle, but it was mastered by Parnell in the Land War, where his movement incorporated the Fenians of Ireland and America. Constitutional Nationalism dominated this century in terms of ability to achieve concessions and it was only in a surprise uprising, in the next century, did Revolutionary Nationalism display its full potential. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Other Historical Periods section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Other Historical Periods essays

  1. South African Heritage - Where we come from?

    Who makes the most convincing argument in Source K? Explain your choice. I think the property developers have the most convincing argument because if their title deeds allow them to build on land that is outside the burial sites there is absolutely no reason why they should not be permitted to do so.

  2. Why Did The Wartime Alliance Break Down?

    The London Poles, who were Catholic landowners and were members of the government in exile, opposed Stalin, they were against Communism. Quite the opposite was the Lublin Poles, set up with the help of the USSR in July 1944 and therefore supported Communism.

  1. Gandhi was instrumental in India achieving its independence. Gandhi was able to procure Indias ...

    Another group of people on Gandhi's list were women. Women were never seen as important or of value. As with the untouchables and the poor Gandhi shot this idea aside. Gandhi said, "If women start contributing their share in every field of service which is safe for them, our capacity for work will be doubled (4)."

  2. 19th Century Nationalism

    Europeans were taking over other countries for political, social, and economic gain. China, Vietnam, and India had all been controlled by Europeans for long periods of time.

  1. The First English Civil War

    But he advanced beyond Kineton, and the enemy promptly left their strong position and came down to the foot of the hill; situated as they were, they had either to fight wherever they could induce the enemy to engage, or to starve in the midst of hostile garrisons.

  2. Archaeology: Methods of Preservation (Tutankhamen & Iceman)

    Adipocere can only form if a body is in water, leading to the conclusion that the ice-man was not always frozen7. At Innsbruck �tzi's body began to grow fungi after being exposed to room temperature during a medical examination, it was soon realised that �tzi's alpine condition would need to

  1. In the context of India in the 1840s to 1947, how far can independence ...

    It is certain that the creation of Congress and the growth of popular support developed nationalist feeling, but this was as a result of British provocative actions: the early mistreatment of sepoys; the passing of the Rowlatt Acts and the Amritsar massacre.

  2. To what extent could the Crusades be described as failure within the years 1095-1195?

    ?The Crusaders Empire? was stretching from Edessa in the north to the Gulf of Aqaba in the south. Conquest in the first crusade did not mean the end of the fight. It was only a temporary truce, as the East still lived more Muslims than Christians.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work