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William's Victory

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Introduction

'It was William's abilities on and off the field that secured his victory'. To what extent do you agree? There are many reasons why the Normans defeated the Anglo-Saxons at Hastings in 1066. William's abilities on and off the field are a major factor, but other reasons may lie in the mistakes that Harold made, and the consequences of these. On one hand I agree that it was William's abilities on and off the field that secured his victory. Firstly, William's army was highly skilled and included archers and cavalry which the English lacked. This was a clear advantage as they could shoot arrows to attack the English army and charge towards them on horseback to push their shield wall back, whilst the English could only fight a defensive battle. William of Poitiers explained the Norman use of weapons in the 'English Historical Documents II', '...In the van he placed foot soldiers equipped with arrows and crossbows; in the second rank came more heavily armed infantry clad in hauberks; and finally came the squadrons of knights in the midst of whom he rode himself showing invincible courage...'. From this, we can also understand that not only was William's army well equipped, they were also in good formation for battle making good use of it's variety of weapons for attack on the English. It is important to note however, that a source from William of Poitiers would be from a Norman perspective which therefore explains his view that William '...rode himself showing invincible courage...'. ...read more.

Middle

is untrue. However, as this is a Norman source it is not surprising that it provides this account of the Normans feint against the English. Whether the Saxons being tempted from their shield was from ill-discipline or a terrible decision by Harold is not known. Lastly, due to Harold being in the North of the country when William landed, he had the advantage of having a well rested army and full army compared with Harold's weary and outnumbered fyrd. This was an obvious benefit to William as they had time to make sure they were fully prepared for the battle, with an army which was well equipped and ready to fight. William had yet another advantage over Harold. He had an army of skilled men and '... also brought with him powerful help from all parts of Gaul...' [Florence of Worcester]. Harolds army therefore proved no match for Williams army even before the battle had started. On the other hand, I do not believe it was Williams' abilities on and off the field that secured his victory, but rather the disadvantages of Harold and his mistakes. Firstly, after his battle against Harald Hardrara at Stamford Bridge, Harold did not wait to rest his army, nor did he recruit anymore men to help his cause '...although he well knew that some of the bravest Englishmen had fallen in the two former battles, and that one half of his army had not yet arrived, he did not hesitate to advance with all speed into Sussex against his enemies...'. ...read more.

Conclusion

Lastly, in comparison to William's papal banner as a good psychological factor, it was rumoured that Harold's army saw 'Haley's Comet' and believed that this was a bad omen, if this is true, the men may have lost confidence that they would win the battle against William as they would have been very superstitious. To conclude, I believe it was a mixture of all these factors. Whilst Harold had made mistakes and the consequences of these were bad, William was well prepared and had the knowledge and skill to organise his army effectively, as well as being a good leader. However, I believe that the fundamental reason for Williams victory at the Battle of Hastings was the use of the feint which broke the Anglo-Saxon shield wall. Until then, the English had held out well and had managed to keep its defences against the Normans. William obviously had an advantage against Harold to begin with due to his well equipped and highly skilled army, nevertheless perhaps if Harold had used more updated tactics and had waited to re-arm and re-gain men, he may have been able to keep the throne. His ability to fight can not be undermined as he did defeat Harald Hardrara at Stamford Bridge. Overall, William's victory was due to luck and skill both before the battle and during it. His preparation and organisation was far better than that of the English army, but also the successfulness of the feint was both because of his highly skilled tactics, and the stupidity of the English army. ...read more.

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