• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Workers' movements in 19th century England.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

WORKERS' MOVEMENTS IN 19th CENTURY ENGLAND In older Britain power was justified by the belief in the inevitability of the aristocratic rule. The Industrial Revolution brought with it many profound effects on this belief system of the European civilization, especially Britain. It rendered much of the old aristocracy irrelevant and boosted the bourgeoisie to economic and political power and drafted much of the old peasant class into the factories. This brought about a lot of changes in the earlier feudal set up as there was a shift in the attitude towards wealth. Capitalists viewed themselves as the creators of their own wealth and considered it something to be proud of. This belief and indulgence in self pride led the capitalists to believe that they owned Britain's working class and exploited them to the fullest. The conditions of the laborers in Britain during the 18TH and the 19TH centuries were appalling and resulted in various workers' movements which formed a landmark in the development of British Industrialist and Capitalist history. STANDARD OF LIVING OF WORKERS: Arnold Toynbee, at Oxford, damned the Industrial Revolution as a 'period as disastrous and terrible as any through which a nation ever passed.' ...read more.

Middle

By 1829 the 'political unions' that were to play an important role in mobilizing public opinion were being established and reform was the major issue in the election that followed the death of George IV in 1830. THE FACTORY MOVEMENT The factory movement was a part of the greater struggle over the 'condition of England'. The main aim of the movement was to regulate the factory hours and improve the working conditions for the factory operatives. The campaign achieved a great deal as the government became heavily involved in regulating the factory hours and factory conditions while most other occupations were still unregulated. The working class support for reform came mainly from the factory districts themselves. The movement had far greater effects than expected and by 1850 the factory operatives were working less than most of the workers in the week. All of this advance can not be attributed to factory reform alone but its contribution to the movement is significant. THE ANTI - POOR LAW CAMPAIGN The ultimate purpose of the anti poor law campaign was repeal of the legislation of 1834 and this is what is failed to achieve. ...read more.

Conclusion

In 1880, the Employers liability act was passed which made the employer responsible for any work place accidents. There were also in these years several piecemeal legislative advances affecting safety and working conditions. The number of mines and factory workers was increased, and the first working class factory inspector began his rounds in 1882. In 1884, the Reform act was passed again which enfranchised even the rural workers. 1889 - 91 marked the coming of "New Unionism'. CONCLUSION Despite industrialization, urbanization and the widening of the gulf between employers and workers, the persistence of harmonious class - relations and the remarkable slow development of working class consciousness are two of the major themes of 19Th C British labour history. The acts passed during the 19th Century prove to be vital till date. The labour force of 1815 presents a remarkable contrast with that of a century later. There were fewer children at work and workers had moved to the towns and into industrial and tertiary employment. The working week was shorter and, the workplace less dangerous and the Urban environment much healthier, the work force was larger more productive and better paid. Thus, due the various reform acts and workers' movements the overall conditions of the British Industrial Society improved and proved profitable for both the employers and the workers. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level British History: Monarchy & Politics section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level British History: Monarchy & Politics essays

  1. Why was The Great Reform Act passed in 1832 ?

    In the 1830s there were several wet seasons, causing the loss of sheep as well as crops. To crown it all, taxation to pay for the war had grown alarmingly, there were taxes on salt, soap, candles, leather, malt, sugar and tea which just about included everything necessary for a working man.

  2. In your opinion, who is most to blame for the outcome in “On the ...

    Edith Harnham plays a large role in Anna's life. She almost takes on a motherly role. She tries to gain control of Anna and would seem to interfere in Anna's life a lot. The story suggests Edith is jealous of Anna and would very much like to be in her position.

  1. Reform Chartism

    with Gladstone often strained- Liberal Caucus- Reform Act- voters in boroughs represented by 3 members given 2 votes- could use both for same candidate o vote for 2 different- Chamberlain built party organisation with accurate list of supporters- told Liberal supporters who to vote for- Lib votes could be spread

  2. Growth of Democracy in 19th Centuary Britain.

    The Whigs, despite being, like the rest of the government at the time, an aristocratic party themselves, supported the idea of a moderate reform. They were aware of the discontent amongst the people and wished to extend the franchise to the skilled working class, who they felt were worthy of the vote.

  1. In 1781 Arkwright finished his partnership with Strutt but kept his mill at Cromford.

    'Richard Ark Wright was a kind employer'. What evidence do we have to support this view? Source 1 shows us that he had houses built for his workers; they were fairly big and didn't look crowded. They were built out of stone and brick and looked well constructed. There are also chimneys, which shows they had warmth.

  2. How Successful was Edward Carson in His Defense of Unionism During The Third Home ...

    Carson knew that this was a tactical move as he wanted to undermine the Home Rule and still be open to negotiation. Carson?s minimum terms for settlement. The total exclusion of Ulster was preferable but he would settle on basis of six.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work