• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

An evaluation of search processes in Artificial Intelligencec

Extracts from this document...


Evaluate the different types of search processes that have been used in Artificial Intelligence. Can these processes be used to understand human problem solving? The two most fundamental concerns of AI researchers are knowledge representation and search. Search is a problem-solving technique that systematically explores a space of problem states, i.e., successive and alternative stages in the problem solving process. In other words it is 'the act of enumerating possibilities and deciding between them.'1 This essay will evaluate the different types of search processes that have been used in artificial intelligence. It will then go on to explore if and how these processes can be used to understand human problem solving. Problem solving is frequently referred to in terms of searching a problem space, which consists of various states of the problem. A state is a representation of the problem in some degree of solution. The initial state is the initial situation of the problem solver, while the intermediate states are the situations on the way to the goal. The various states that the problem solver can achieve are referred to as defining a problem space, or state space. Problem solving operators can be conceived of as changing one state in the space into another. The difficulty is to find some possible sequence of operators that goes from the initial state to the goal state in the problem space. ...read more.


Sometimes, by chance, depth-first search may find a solution without examining much of the search space at all, which contrasts with breadth-first search in which all parts of the tree must be examined to a certain level before any nodes on the next level can be examined. Saying this, breadth first search will not get trapped along a blind alley which leads to nowhere, in comparison with depth-first where the search could be following a long path to nowhere for a long time. If we consider human problem solving, it is usually a combination of depth first and breadth first search. The tendency is maybe even towards depth first search of a small part of the search space, but this is after spotting the right portion of the search space to search, which to some extent is guided by heuristics. Heuristics are rules of thumb, almost like tour guides, in that they are good to the extent of pointing in the general direction, but may miss certain paths Heuristic search uses a heuristic evaluation function, which evaluates each state. On average, they improve the quality of the paths that are explored. They are the means by which humans can perform more efficient search. Hill climbing is one heuristic search process. Sometimes referred to as 'difference reduction,' it involves the problem solver aiming to reduce the difference between the current state and the goal state. ...read more.


One statement that describes search and problem solving in human terms is: "Human cognition is always purposeful, directed to achieving goals and to removing obstacles to those goals."(Anderson, 1983; Newell, 1980; Tolman, 1932)5 All of the search processes that have been discussed and evaluated can be applied to human problem solving to varying extents. Possibly the most useful one, which relates most closely to human problem solving are the heuristic search processes, although there are disadvantages with some heuristic searches, for example they do not always find the optimal solution. This may not be as much of an issue as it seems though, as Simon (1981) demonstrated.6 The concepts of Heuristic search processes can be applied thoroughly to human problem solving, for example, as Polya (1957)7 discusses in his book, if you are given a problem, look for a similar problem you have solved, and ask whether you can use the solution to that problem or the method used to solve the current one. This links to heuristic search processes, which rely on already obtained knowledge and rules of thumb. Artificial Intelligence, particularly the study of search processes, has indeed helped us to understand human cognition. The search processes which have been studied can help us to understand human problem solving in particular, in that it helps us to decipher the processes which a human brain goes through in everyday problem solving instances, and how some of these thought processes rely on stored knowledge and are guided by heuristics. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Management & Manipulation of Information section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Management & Manipulation of Information essays

  1. Analysis of market, environmental forces, competitors, marketing mix and consumer implementation.

    Since then, Nintendo's 100 million selling GameBoy has enjoyed a monopoly market share. It has become a huge cash cow. Nintendo's next challenge is to expand on this franchise into an even more lucrative business. To do this, the GameBoy and GameCube have been made to be compatible, an industry first.

  2. Designing a booking system for an Estate Agent.

    The negotiator just writes the information in the diary which is time consuming compared to using a computer system. Lastly, the current system cannot create a booking confirmation which in this case will be an appointment slip for the client if they book in person.

  1. ICT Solutions for people with Special Needs.

    It would give people with visual impairments new rights in three main areas: 1. Employment 2. Access to goods, facilities and services 3. The management, buying or renting property. Disabled Persons Act 1986 (Conclusions) The Disabled Persons Act 1986 extends on The Chronically Sick and Disabled Persons Act 1970 and

  2. Video World Database as ICT project.

    was successful as when you press the Exit button the database closes. Test 6- Test editing option to open Customers form This test was successful as when you press the customers button the customers input form opens. Test 7- Test editing option to open Videos form This test was successful

  1. Biometrics: Analysis and Implications.

    By the application of 2-D Gabor filters, the texture of the iris is examined to distinguished features within these zones. From this information, a 256-byte iris code is produced as a representation of the features of the individual iris2. Past technologies have based their critiques on common points.

  2. Video World Data System

    It is also not immediately obvious when a date is overdue because there is so much writing on the forms and so you cannot always see an overdue video. Seeing how well the staff are doing. There is nothing in the old system that tells Gary how well his staff are doing.

  1. An analytical report to discuss the HEG Infoway project, its implementation and the reasons ...

    BIL is a SEI-CMM (appendix 1) level 4 compliant company. 3.0 Project Details 3.1 Scope of the project: The details of the scope of the project are provided in appendix 1. It can be broadly divided in seven main parts.

  2. What the term Enterprise Resource Planning means and to whom.

    SAP also offer modules for logistics and human resources. Recently, SAP has expanded its product line by including supply chain management, sales-force automation and data warehousing software. PeopleSoft is the number two ERP vendor. PeopleSoft made its mark with human resource software. The company currently targets the service sector with products designed to help companies handle their intangible costs.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work