• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month
Page
  1. 1
    1
  2. 2
    2
  3. 3
    3
  4. 4
    4
  5. 5
    5
  6. 6
    6
  7. 7
    7
  8. 8
    8
  9. 9
    9
  10. 10
    10
  11. 11
    11
  12. 12
    12
  13. 13
    13
  14. 14
    14
  15. 15
    15

Artificial Intelligence.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Define what is meant by the term Artificial Intelligence Artificial intelligence is a branch of computer science that deals with the creation of computer programs that can provide solutions that otherwise humans would have to solve. On a broader spectrum artificial intelligence attempts to imitate human behavior and intelligence to generate these computer programs. However artificial intelligence is the youngest of studies, and is evolving every day. The ultimate aim of artificial intelligence and its study is to imitate and/or duplicate intelligence of humans in computers and robots. Artificial Intelligence improves productivity, personnel upgrading, new training and to aid in the solving of difficult problems. With the aid of a suitable diagram, illustrate the branches of A.I and define where Expert Systems reside within it. [http://distancelearning.ksi.edu/demo/509/ch01a.html] The diagram above illustrates the seven (7) areas that Artificial Intelligence is comprised of. Of course with the speed of progression of such a complex study such as Artificial Intelligence these areas are rapidly growing however they are more commonly defined in to one of these seven 'branches'. "AI has many areas of interest. The area of expert systems is a very successful approximate solution to the classic AI problem of programming intelligence." [[http://distancelearning.ksi.edu/demo/509/ch01a.html] Expert systems are a branch of Artificial Intelligence that makes extensive use of specialized knowledge to solve problems at the same level as a human expert. ...read more.

Middle

An expert system simply automates decision making and problem solving techniques in a domain which saves time and money as human intelligence is not required to be purchased to find a solution. Dependant on how the expert system is used is highly conclusive on how the expert system achieves its tasks, for example in the medical field an expert system is used as a decision support, this is where a conclusion is made in the doctor's brain, but is then checked and checked against the knowledge and experience of the expert system. The most supported and use expert system technique is that of 'decision making' this is where prior entered knowledge and expertise is used to train or 'make decisions' beyond the level or expertise of the user. Some expert systems however use set rules to determine an outcome, this is in the format of using IF...THEN...ELSE statements, this is where a decision is made or concluded in a particular state or situation. This is where conditions are checked against one another for example: IF X is not = 5 THEN X = 10 ELSE "invalid figure" Expert systems are made up on thousands of these statements, which are more commonly known as 'inference rules' Expert systems and their evolution have brought about a clever methodology in which the rule base is segmented, allowing for elimination of segments of knowledge/data that are not relevant to the application process in hand. ...read more.

Conclusion

This method shows the relationships between the different properties. This then all links together to form a large network, which in turn is the systems knowledge base. Another representation method is using systematic networks; they represent the path and sequential root that the expert would take to gain a conclusion or solution to a problem. It is very closely matched to that of how a human brain would think in order to reach a final conclusion. It works in a similar way to how a doctor would diagnose a patient. Define three types of human learning. Describe the differences between these learning methods and the 'learning' capabilities of an Expert System. Humans ultimately learn in three different ways: - Learning by experience Learning by experience is a significant sign of intelligence. Experts are often tested of their ability by simply doing recall tests, this is where they are asked questions in a domain that they are specialized in, and tests have shown that they have a much more rapid response time to the questions than that of non-experts. A massive rise in Artificial Intelligence brought around the wish for computers to be able to learn from their own mistakes and experiences, an example of this is an expert system called "SOAR" , SOAR is an expert system created by the Carnegie Mellon University and Michigan University, the main operation of the expert system is that of remembering lines of reasoning that have been successful previously, these stored items can later be recalled in similar situations. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Information Systems and Communication section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Information Systems and Communication essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Ecommerce Case Study

    should then begin to establish their own payment system should it be their own arrangement with a bank or a service similar to PayPal. If Cuckoo Games decide to begin using their own payment system such as their using a bank it is important to keep in mind that there

  2. Computers in Hospitals. Computers can be used in Hospitals for two main purposes ...

    If we were to track transfusions using names, then it would coarsen precision, as there may be hundreds of Bill Bates's who donated blood. Blood is characterized by ISBT 128. This is similar to the ISBN number earlier discussed. It identifies labels and processes human blood and tissue.

  1. Data Processing Task. Mr Peters, the man who runs this particular Samsung store ...

    your favourite colour and you can just search straight away This query contains data from the products table and it contains the following fields; ProductID, Name, Colour, Stock, Price and Image. Product by Price: This is a parameter query which asks you to a enter a price bracket.

  2. From the e-commerce strategy you gave me earlier I understand that by having a ...

    Potential security risks may arise if there is poor programming which could lead to hackers deciphering which language your website is written in. The client side code receives more information so takes longer to load and is generally less secure because the users can see all the code and what language the website is written in.

  1. Information: G061 - Systems and Communication

    the presentation - number of images per slide should be kept to minimum, and kept at suitable size - copyright must be considered Sound - sound effects can be set with animation effects (e.g. drum roll, chime, clapping) - can emphasise import pieces of information; however must be used sparingly

  2. Health Book

    Under the law, health service providers can only collect information if the patients have given consent. This Privacy Amendment Act 2000 gives individual a right to know what information an organisation holds about and a right to correct that information if it is wrong.

  1. Website Design, Creation and Evaluation

    CHAPTER 4 Development of web pages/frames 4.1 Concept and Methodology Before I begin designing and prototyping my website, I must have a site in mind.

  2. Personal Learning Plan for IT

    7 Excellent speller at all the times I need to remember the words so I can spell without the mistake. I can spell all the words I know however I don?t know how to spell more advanced or complicate words.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work