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Computer Crime

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Table of Contents Cybercrime: An Overview of Computer Fraud and Abuse 3 What is Cybercrime? 3 New and emerging technologies and their impact on personal privacy protection 4 I-Phone 4 I-Pad 5 RFID Tagging 5 The Affect of Computer Crime on Society 7 What has been done by companies and governments to control the problem? 8 Penalties Imposed by Australian Law for Cybercrime 9 Weaknesses currently existing in Australian Cyber law 10 What proposed changes are being or should be suggested to overcome these loopholes 11 Chances of a computer criminal being caught and prosecuted 12 Reference List 13 Appendix 15 Cybercrime: An Overview of Computer Fraud and Abuse "New times bring new crimes. It's a story as old as humanity and as new as the Internet. First came cars, then car thieves followed. Telephones are followed by telephone fraud. Now we've got computers." (Anonymous1 Year Unknown) In the past decade technology has exponentially increased, and along with it computer crime. All new and emerging technologies are being affected by this transgression and this has been creating many problems for consumers, companies, agencies and the government. Companies and agencies have only now become conscious of the fact that their computers are prone to attack. In response to this, new security systems have been implemented and penalties for such an act increased. This report will briefly touch on technologies under threat, the impact of computer felonies on society, steps taken by companies and the government to control the problem, penalties associated with such crimes, loop holes in the justice system and chances of the perpetrators being caught. What is Cybercrime? Cyber crime is often defined as a crime committed online with the aid of a computer or networks. Typical activities of cyber crime can include the following: * Child pornography * Botnets * SPAM * Identity theft * Fake security software * Credit card fraud * DDoS Extortion * Click fraud * Cyber squatting * Blackhat SEO * Pump-and-dump stock schemes Of all these, botnets has grown exponentially over the last 4 years. ...read more.

Middle

They want White Hat Hackers with abilities to prevent breaching of their systems by black and grey hat hackers to ensure full security of all computerized sections of the Company. Companies have also upgraded physical security, such as camera security, security guards, BIOS password security, encryption methods, firewall setup, anti-virus security personnel, (Kevin Fenzi, Dave Wreski 2004). Some have also gone to lengths such as biometrics, employee education internal company filters, secured LAN and wireless networks and intrusion detection systems. Not too long ago, companies united with computer crime squads and government task forces with the objective to catch cyber-criminals on a national basis; squad units such as Australian High Tech Crime Centre (AHTCC) under the Australian Federal Police (AFP). Penalties Imposed by Australian Law for Cybercrime Possession of Data with Intent: The maximum penalty is three years imprisonment. Supplying Data with Intent: The maximum penalty for the offence of producing, supplying or obtaining data with intent to commit serious computer offence is three years imprisonment. Unauthorized Access of Restricted Data: The maximum penalty for the offence of unauthorized access or modification of restricted data held in computer is two years imprisonment. Unauthorized Access with Intent: The maximum penalty for the offence of unauthorized access, modification or impairment with intent to commit serious indictable offence is the same as that which is applicable if the person had committed, or facilitated the commission of, the serious indictable offence in this jurisdiction. Unauthorized impairment of electronic communication to or from a computer: The Maximum penalty for the offence of unauthorized impairment of electronic communication is ten years imprisonment. Unauthorized Modification Of Data: The Maximum penalty for the offence of unauthorized modification of data with intent to cause impairment is ten years imprisonment. (Anonymous3 2010) Weaknesses currently existing in Australian Cyber law "Cybercrime laws haven't kept pace with technology," a spokesperson for the federal Justice Minister, Senator Chris Ellison, told ZDNet. ...read more.

Conclusion

4. Any organisation or business found to breach these regulatory requirements to suffer stiff financial penalties and be required by law to take action to become compliant within a particular reasonable time frame. 5. Require Australian registries/registrars to follow a Code of Conduct adopting the APWG Best Practice Guide. 6. Require network level secure protocols to be implemented as broadly as possible by network owners in Australia and anyone operating under the .au ccTLD (eg, DNSSEC, IPSec, SBGP, etc). 7. At the national level provide financial incentives for students and universities to provide access to more IT security courses. 8. At the national level provide financial/tax incentives for employers and employees to undertake further professional development in areas of information security, network security, cyber security management and obtain relevant certifications etc. 9. At the national level, ensure that anyone who sets up a business to 'repair computers' and 'remove malware' has received formal IT security training and certifications before doing so. Ensure that these certifications are displayed to enable consumers to have confidence that they are obtaining professional assistance. 10. At the national level provide financial/tax incentives for employers and employees to undertake further professional development in areas of information security, network security, cyber security management and obtain relevant certifications etc. Medium term 11. Later, if the proposed regulations outlined in 1-4 above prove to be effective in reducing cyber attacks in Australia, extend arrangements to any public facing network systems such as routers, mail servers, domain name servers etc. It is recommended focusing on web sites and web applications primarily as they are very popular target for attack and have the greatest ability to exposing ordinary internet users to malware attacks. 12.Work with governments internationally to improve current levels of cooperation between CERTs, registrars and ISPs to mitigate identified attacks in progress in a more timely manner than current arrangements provide. Figure 1: SPAM by botnets estimates http://www.blackhat.com/presentations/bh-usa-09/guerra/bhusa09-guerra- Economicscybercrime-paper.pdf ?? ?? ?? ?? Jameel Khan Information and Processing Technologies Mr Carey Year 12 | ...read more.

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Response to the question

This is an exceptionally detailed and well researched document which describes modern day computer misuse. The writer outlines in the introductory paragraphs of what the report is to discuss and also includes a section to define cybercrime along with the ...

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Response to the question

This is an exceptionally detailed and well researched document which describes modern day computer misuse. The writer outlines in the introductory paragraphs of what the report is to discuss and also includes a section to define cybercrime along with the appropriate references, before continuing.
The main text begins in an orderly and structured fashion by first discussing the web technologies, applications and hardware/components prone to abuse and then applying this information by demonstrating its effects on society. The writer also notes the consequences and how law enforcement agencies and companies retaliate with new measures.

Level of analysis

The writer provides numerous examples of the topics discussed and demonstrates a considerable level of analytical skills as evidenced through the references and citations included and drawing accurate assumptions and conclusions accordingly.
However, the writer provides a number of Wikipedia citations and should instead have provided what Wikipedia itself references (found towards the end of the page).

Quality of writing

The style of writing is that of a formal report with few grammatical errors. One thing to note in particular would be personal opinions, rhetoric and straying away from the consistent style of writing, as an example, consider this extract: “This ignorance of both the court judges allows cybercriminals and civilians to think cyber felonies committed in Australia have somewhat little or no consequences. Can an increase be expected in cybercriminals? You tell me.”
A short abstract would have been helpful, along with clear headers for an introduction and a conclusion. Overall, considering that this is an A-Level piece of work, the standard and effort involved is excellent.


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Reviewed by finalfantasy 18/02/2012

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