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Examine the key features around the growth, development and policing of cyber crime in the 21st century.

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Emma Fields Social Policy and Criminology Examine the key features around the growth, development and policing of cyber crime in the 21st century. The internet was first created in the 1960?s, but it only really started to take off and develop in the last 20 years with big websites such as Google (1998) and YouTube (2005). With the internet developing and people knowing more about it, cybercrime then came about and since then it has grown and gotten more dangerous and more extreme. There are several different types of cybercrime for example one is called cyber violence, this includes stalking and harassment, it can also be bullying people online via social networking sites and chat rooms. Cyber obscenity is another type of cyber crime which is sexual including porn sites. Cyber trespass is the crime of hacking sites and cyber theft is also another cybercrime which is credit card fraud as well as the illegal downloading of movies, music, books etc. Computer hackers are very intelligent, initially they started hacking sites simply because they were able to, and they wanted to explore the sites, at the start it was done just for fun. ...read more.


publicised mostly because it would not be good for business as people may think that the website is not safe and will not use it. 22% of the top mobile applications have been hacked. Stalking only became a crime in 1997 and a criminal offence in England and Wales in 2012. Cyber stalking activities include sending repeated, unwanted messages, it could be ordering stuff on behalf of the victims, publicising the victims personal information, spreading false information about the individual and encouraging others to harass the victim. There are 2 types of stalking, direct and indirect. Direct is most common and often starts with an email. Indirect is stalking with the use of billboards and advertisements. In 1999, Ellison carried out research on Working to the Halt of Abuse Online 2000 and found that 39% of stalkers began contact with the victim via email. Only 1% of stalkers didn?t use the internet to first get in contact with the victim. Stalkers are likely to be an ex-partner, however half of all stalkers aren?t known by the victim. There were websites set up for people to stalk there ex partner online, they were called ?Avengers Den? and ?Get Revenge On Your Ex? they were designed so people could crush their ex-partners self esteem and they could fake SMS them. ...read more.


The internet?s characteristics make cybercrime policing very hard, especially hackers, they are so skilled and make sure they do not get caught. There are state funded public police organisations set up to help police cybercrime and put a stop to it. There are also state funded non police and non public policing organisations. ISPs are set up as well as internet users forming groups to protect themselves from cybercrime. There are specialist units in place for policing cybercrime for example Europol which is the European law enforcement agency and Interpol which is the world?s largest policing agency with 109 countries involved. They connect policing communities to make the world safer. Forensic Investigation Units, CID/ Fraud Squad, Computer crime units and child protection units are specialist units that deal with cyber crime. The aim for the future is to bring in some form of legislation that cuts down on cyber crime and also to stop cyber crime from starting in the first place. To conclude the internet has proven to be very dangerous and cyber crime is developing rapidly. People have to be extremely careful while using the internet and not fall into the hackers trap. Warren, P and Streeter, M (2005). Cyber Crime. London: Vision Paperbacks. 1-19, 19-45, 45-72. Word Count: ...read more.

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Here's what a teacher thought of this essay

4 star(s)

Overall this essay is a reasonable attempt that describes many of the things that together make up cyber crime. The essay contains many example and does quantify some points although it would benefit from more of this towards the beginning (see comments about this).
"Examine" as a key word in the title is always difficult to interpret correctly and does lend itself to the production of a more narrative approach which this is. I would be looking for more analysis of the contribution of the points raised to the overall growth and proliferation of cyber crime.

Another element which would increase the quality of the essay is use of some more key vocabulary associated with cyber crime - like detectability, anonymity and so on. In addition, whilst the international element is mentioned in some detail, the point made in one of the comments about how the very nature of the internet lends itself to the growth of cyber crime it does also lend itself to the detection and bringing those responsible to justice - all but the very best hackers leave "footprints" and traces of their activity.

This essay is a low B grade at and achieves 4 stars. It is in essence a good essay in terms of looking at the facets of cyber crime and describing them but it would benefit from greater depth of analysis.

Marked by teacher Ad Son 03/01/2013

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