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Information: G061 - Systems and Communication

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

ICT Theory Revision Guide 3.1.1 Data, Information, Knowledge and Processing a) Data is the raw facts and figures (alphanumeric characters), without meaning. For example, 211210 is the data entered in when entering the date 21/12/2010. b) Information is processed data with a meaning (and sometimes context and structure): Information = Data + [Context] + [Structure] + Meaning c) Representation Advantages Disadvantages Text * Clear to understand * Lots of detail * Need to be able to read * Need to understand language * Can be confusing - level of language * Lots of text cannot be read quickly - road signs Graphics * Multilingual - do not need language to understand * Can match what you see - physical shapes * Can be confusing if you don't know the symbols - road signs * Some symbols mean different things in different cultures and countries Sound * No fixed position * No line of site required * Good for visually impaired people * No good in large areas - distortion of sound * Usually language based * May not know the sound * Need to be able to hear Moving pictures * Lots of information conveyed * Not language dependent * Can exemplify text * Linear - if you do not see the beginning you may not understand * Problems if sound LED * Can allow data to be kept secure * Can be used in noisy places * Similar to graphics * Need to be able to see the lights * Combinations of lights may need to be known to be understood d) Information is processed data with a meaning, structure and context. Knowledge is the application of that information to a situation. e) Data type Description Boolean * Can contain one of only two values, e.g. male/female, true/false Real * Contains numbers which will have decimal places Integer * Contains whole numbers with no decimal places Text/string * Any alphanumeric character, including numbers, text and symbols, e.g. ...read more.

Middle

Mathematical modelling: - based on a layout of rows and columns (spreadsheet) assisting in a logical format - replication of a cell horizontally/vertically (including formulae, with cell references being updated automatically) - can be based on functions and formulae (allowing variables to be edited and for automatic recalculation of any cell based on those variables) - "What if...?" questions can be asked (changing variables); goal seek can also be used - cells and ranges can be given specific names to reference (e.g. VAT_RATE for the cell containing the rate of VAT) - use of multiple different worksheets in the spreadsheet - use of graphs and graphical representation of data Modelling is used because: - it is less risky (safer and cheaper) to test a model of a design than to create it in reality and test it - only one model needs to be created on a computer; a real model would need to be recreated every time a different variable was changed - costing time and money - models can be backed up and shared - models can be sped up/slowed down to see effects in the short run/long run (not possible in reality) b) A model can recalculate values when numbers change, predict what will happen as an effect, and test different scenarios. There are four features involved in this. Variables: a variable is an identifier associated with a particular cell - within the cell, there will be a value Formulae: a formula is a calculation which uses numbers, addresses of cells and mathematical operators Rules: rules are a set of procedures that must be followed and can also be the sequence of events required for the calculation to work Functions: a function represents a complex formula that uses reserved words c) "What if...?" questions are an attempt to find out what will happen in the future. They require a value to be changed so that other values can be re-calculated. ...read more.

Conclusion

seen as a breach of trust - Many people like to 'cling on' to their privacy - Concerns about what controls there are on organisations who monitor communications The Electronic Communications Act (2000) The Electronic Communications Act: - government wanted 'to make the UK the best place in the world for e-commerce' and to 'create a legal framework so that people can be sure about the origin and integrity of communications' The Electronic Communications Act has two make parts: 1. Cryptography service providers - this allows the government to set up a register of approved cryptography suppliers 2. Facilitation of electronic commerce, data storage - this recognises digital signatures, which are now admissible in law Benefits of Electronic Communications Act Problems with Electronic Communications Act - contracts signed over the Internet have the same legality as those signed by hand (increasing security of e-commerce and ensures legal backing for contracts) - lots of legislation against digital signatures, so there's now legislation to remove laws preventing digital signatures, but this takes time - always a security risk The Freedom of Information Act (2000) The Freedom of Information Act: - deals with access to information on any topic from any public authority (including government, the health service, schools and police) - allows anyone to make a request, giving their name, address and a description of what they want Benefits of Freedom of Information Act Problems with Freedom of Information Act - information that wasn't accessible to the general public is now available - increased accountability (public authority cannot hide decisions they make) - any information can be requested, however it may be withheld to protect various interests/may come under an exception - public authority doesn't have to confirm or deny the existence of the information that you have requested - doesn't have to provide information if an exemption applies, if the request is too vague, if it's similar to a previous request, or if the cost of collating and producing the information exceeds an appropriate limit ...read more.

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