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List and describe the 11 systems of the human body, their functions and major organs.

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Introduction

Physiology Homework 25 September 2003 Cara Parrish Subject : List and describe the 11 systems of the Human Body, their functions and Major Organs. Systems 1. Skeletal System 2. Respiratory System 3 Circulatory System 4. Digestive System 5. Endocrine System 6. Reproductive System 7. Nervous System 8. Integumentary System 9. Lymphatic (& Immunity) System 10. Muscular System 11. Urinary (or Genito-Urinary) System Functions and Major Organs 1. Skeletal This is the name attributed to the 350 bones that keeps the rest of our body up. Although the amount of bones we have at birth actually reduces between then and childhood to around 206, as some of our bones fuse together during growth. Our bones are most important to us as they do 3 essential tasks : a) The skeleton is the protection for our vital organs, including the brain, heart and lungs. b) The skeleton makes us the shape that we are and supports our tissue otherwise we would just be a mass of blood and flesh on the ground. c) The skeleton enables us to move, because our muscles are adjoined to our bones so when our muscles move it moves our bones, therefore - we move.

Middle

5. Endocrine This system is made up of Endocrine Glands that arise during the development of 3 embryologi tissues (Endoderm, mesoderm and ectoderm) and the Endcrine glands relese chemical messages (otherwise known as hormones) which are passed through the blood and sent to individual organs that contain the appropriate receptor cells. These hormones are grouped into Steroid, Peptide and Amines. The Endocrine System regulates physiological funtion through cycle and negative feedback which aids the maintenance of physiological and homeostatic control. The main organs (or glands) would include the Pirtuitary (or Master) Gland, Hypotholamas and also the Pineal, Thyroid, Parathyroids, Thymus, Adrenals, Isle of Langerhans located in the Pancreas, and in women the Ovary and in men the Testes. 6. Reproductive Survival of the species is the main function of the Reproductive Sysetm. Other systems cover the survival of the individual however for a species to survive as a whole requires the production of offspring which in turn involves 4 particular functions. a) Production of egg/sperm cells b) Transportation and sustainance of these cells c) Nurturing and development of offspring d) production of hormones These inturn can be split into primary and secondary or reproductive and accessory organs.

Conclusion

This is aided by nutrients carried to them via the blood from the Digestive System. The muscles fall into the following categories, Cardiac, Visceral, Skeletal. There are 2 types of movement in the Muscular System, voluntary and involuntary, which of course is voluntray ` by choice and involunatry without thinking 11. Urinary (Genito-Urinary) The Urinary tract is the system involved in the formatin and expulsion of Urine. Produced by the kidneys during the filtration of waste products from the blood. The waste products when combined with water are urine, which is then passed out of the kidneys through two narrow tubes called ureters. This is then emptied into the bladder and finally excreted from the body through the uretha The principal function of this system is to maintain the body fluids within normal limits which involves ridding the body of waste products that have gathered through cellular metabolism which is why it is sometimes referred to as the Excretory System. It's function also includes regulation of electrolytes in bodily fluid and the maintenance of a normal pH level in the blood also in addtion to maintaining homeostatis, the Urinary System aids the control of red blood cell production by way of secreting Erythropoietin hormone and finally helps to maintain normal blood pressure by the secretion of the Renin Enzyme

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