AS and A Level: Policy, Strategy & Systems

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43 AS and A Level Policy, Strategy & Systems essays

  • Marked by Teachers essays 1
  • Peer Reviewed essays 2
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  2. 2
  1. Marked by a teacher

    Examine the key features around the growth, development and policing of cyber crime in the 21st century.

    4 star(s)

    However it didnât take long for these hackers to realise their potential and what they could actually be doing, soon it then escalated and they became more educated and more confident in hacking. These hackers could now be described as âattackersâ. There are a few types of attacks that can be made on a computer. One is Denial of Service (DoS) attacks. This is a system set up which sends out a fake email to an individual, it could be to check their password for online banking or make credit card payments etc.

    • Essay length: 1265 words
  2. Peer reviewed

    William H. Gates.

    4 star(s)

    While at Harvard, Gates developed a version of the programming language BASIC for the first microcomputer - the MITS Altair. BASIC was first developed by John Kemeny and Thomas Kurtz at Dartmouth College in the mid-1960s. In his junior year, Gates dropped out of Harvard to devote his energies full-time to Microsoft, a company he had started in 1975 with his boyhood friend Paul Allen. Guided by a belief that the personal computer would be a valuable tool on every office desktop and in every home, they began developing software for personal computers.

    • Essay length: 728 words
  3. Peer reviewed

    Legislation regulating E-Commerce

    3 star(s)

    access with the intent to commit further offences * unauthorised modification of computer material In an e-commerce website, Computer misuse act can be used to prevent the website getting hacked by hackers. For example when a user gets registered with an e-commerce website such as Amazon where you have to put all the details including the card details. So if someone hacks into the amazons account, he/she can order products and it will add to the customer's account.

    • Essay length: 540 words
  4. Organisation Security Issues

    It is the main piece of legislation that governs the protection of personal data in the UK. Although the Act itself does not mention privacy, it was enacted to bring UK law into line with the European Directive of 1995 which required Member States to protect people's fundamental rights and freedoms and in particular their right to privacy with respect to the processing of personal data. In practice it provides a way for individuals to control information about themselves. http://goo.gl/2oUHR Examples: It is important that Spanners 'R' Us keep both staff and customers information secure.

    • Essay length: 922 words
  5. Illegal music downloads. This Essay will treat and analyze main points of advantages and disadvantages of unauthorized media files sharing; Government's aspiration to put down a breach of copyright; the influence of free and unlimited music downloads on

    Nowadays almost every Internet user has access to various computer programs for music downloads. For that reason, in a short time sharing music files has become a big issue for the music industry. Despite the fact, that downloading music from Internet is illegal, almost every internet user swaps huge amount of songs every day without any worries about the consequences, which may be versatile. Firstly, piracy downloading of music destroys sales of albums, which has become a huge loss for the music industry. According to the Independent news article "in 1997, 78 million singles were sold in the UK and last year, it was just 8.6 million" (The Independent, 8 July 2009), which shows, that amount of sold music singles has decreased almost by 90% in the last thirteen years.

    • Essay length: 1630 words
  6. Threats to Organisations and Systems. Describe the countermeasures available to an organisation that will reduce the risk of damage to information.

    Three types of threats to data Corruption Data corruption refers to errors in computer data that occur during transmission, retrieval, or processing, introducing unintended changes to the original data. Computer storage and transmission systems use a number of measures to provide data integrity, the lack of errors. When data is placed on a portable format like a USB (Universal Serial Bus) you would expect it to keep safe and make certain that the data on there will not at any harm but in some cases you would be wrong.

    • Essay length: 3021 words
  7. Crime and crime prevention

    http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/technology/4575255.stm In this year Christmas, UK online sales will increase by 40% this year to £7 billion, up from £5 billion in 2005. It is predicted that an average of £4 million will be spent every hour in the 10 weeks up to Christmas. http://www.e-consultancy.com/news-blog/362164/online-shopping-boosts-october-retail-sales-figures.html Identify Theft The information age has provided criminals with lots of new opportunities for crime. ID theft is where someone collects other people personal data and uses them to open bank accounts and get credit cards, loans, state benefits and documents such as passports and driving licenses in their name.

    • Essay length: 1453 words
  8. Download services

    Software Many software applications are now available to download, update or upgrade from the Internet. The reason of software upgrades is extended warranty service which includes feature enhancements, incremental functionality, maintenance and bug fixes of software current has. Example the antivirus software, nearly everyday they are lots of new virus is develop, so the antivirus software would not has the new virus data so it need to update (download the new data from server of antivirus company) to protect the user pc. If not, the virus will damage the data on their computer. So this service is really done a good job to protect the user's pc.

    • Essay length: 2801 words
  9. Computer crime can broadly be defined as criminal activity involving an information technology infrastructure, including illegal access

    [LexisNexis, 2008] The three definitions used, for explaining the term computer misuse are quite different from each other. All the definitions covers the whole aspect of computer misuse for example the first definition used, of 'Computer Misuse Act' is quite a narrow definition which states three offenses, other definition of 'Cyber Crime' involves everything that is to be covered on the internet from child pornography to infringements of copyrights etc. The last definition used, is 'Computer Crime' it is again a very broad definition and covers things like virus, hacking, alteration and deletion of data etc. The examples of these definitions are listed below: In England and Wales, under Computer Misuse Act, it is an offense to send

    • Essay length: 1871 words
  10. Reduce Damage to organisations

    It basically stops legitimate information to get through to the server and stop legitimate service to respond. This will make customers go to other websites and the company that has been attacked by this lose crucial customers and a significant amount of money as their website is not responding. This is done by a particular person sending lots of blank server request which overloads the server/system and it stops getting a request. Halting E-commerce Transactions If for instance a particular person hacks into a website they can basically stop transactions so that the organisations lose customers and money.

    • Essay length: 1027 words
  11. How a particular organisation can take advantage of IT developments

    By having an official website can give the organisation lots of benefits. Consumers will be able to see what kind of items they sell and whether they sell the right product for the right price that the customers are after. Other benefits are that it will also allow the other customers that are not local i.e. people from Liverpool or London etc, to see if they sell a particular product in their shop instead of driving to the actual shop and then finding out that they don't actually sell that particular product/item.

    • Essay length: 1142 words
  12. ICT Implementation

    The lookup is successful the user can select item he has ordered from the supplier. Item Stock Table 3.1.2: This table shows all the items in the stock database, the fields in the table contain the name, supplier, price and quantity of stock. Also on the table is a reorder level field which means if a stock reaches that level set then an order message will be shown. Validation- to ensure only the correct format would be accepted: * Quantity - User can only enter quantity between 1 and 24 * Price - User cannot enter price below £1 or

    • Essay length: 1501 words
  13. The Sullivan's matrix report

    "business goals always shape the company's use of technology, never vice versa" (McAfee, 2004). This portrays Inditex as being entirely business-led where organisational goals invariably define technological innovation. This ethos confirms their desire not to waste money on new systems which do not provide a business value or solution to a specific business problem. McAfee relates to this theory as an "inside-out approach". To sum up the arguments, Inditex has one principle which fully shows that their IT/IS environment is Traditional: "computerisation is standardised and targeted". You can see this on the low IT budget which is estimated 0.5% of revenue and the IT staff of 50.

    • Essay length: 1404 words
  14. implementation of an ITC system

    throughout the complex, and a wireless LAN (Local Area Network) in some of the other parts of the complex, so partners and senior staff will be able to take their laptop, anywhere in the building and they will be able to connect to servers, connect to printers, and share recourses, so they will be able to edit databases for all the clients in real time. They can use email as another source of communication. The email server will be located in the complex. I will also be implementing a new range of computers (desktops) and/Laptops. They asked me if I can set up email accounts for each member of staff.

    • Essay length: 6487 words
  15. Today piracy is one the of biggest problem in the world

    They are not able to increase customer satisfaction by giving the (peace of mind) assurance and a backup which version is obtainable at all times. In most of the poorer countries there is a big problem of there own currency because there currency value is very low it's very hard to for a middle class or poor person to buy legal software.

    • Essay length: 447 words
  16. The impact of ICT on an adult in full-time employment and the effects on his/her working style

    for schools, local council offices and other services as well as government regulations and policies. It also has message boards which can only be used by employees all though it is used as a buying and selling forum. There are a lot of restrictions on the network as well in the form that everyone has there own password for every piece of software that they use and they are restricted to the areas that they work in, an example of this is if he tried to get into an area that contained information about people enquiring about fostering and/or adoption

    • Essay length: 803 words
  17. Tatton Homes ltd. ICT Systems Report

    The company would need laptops and mobile phones with wireless technology, as most of the work is on site thus Employees will be out of the office regularly, so having laptops that could receive information from a wireless internet is essential. A new technology WI-FI could satisfy this need. 3G mobile phones could be a good idea as they have video conferencing and a high-speed Internet connection. High-powered computers with 3D rendering software could be a good idea for 3D software could be used for designing houses obviously the company will need more computers for the new office.

    • Essay length: 763 words
  18. Standard ways of Working - Anti-virus software

    Anti-virus software when installed will do a number of jobs: * The software will scan CD's, floppy disks and DVD's when they are first put into the there drives. * The software will scan emails and their attachments to make sure a virus is not embedded on the base program of the email.

    • Essay length: 265 words
  19. Building Local Area Networks

    The best solution for optimising this network is to implement a wireless local area network within the warehouse. To accomplish this, the Server Unit will need to be wireless enabled, as will the laptops. Specification of hardware/software required To enable wireless connectivity amongst all the required hardware the company will need to purchase hardware with the following capabilities; * A minimum of six type II PCMCIA wireless LAN cards - able to transmit/receive up to 50m. (May wish to purchase more as spares to allow for any breakdowns) * Wireless access point for the server - again able to transmit/receive up to 50m.

    • Essay length: 2994 words
  20. The new era of Offshore IT Outsourcing.

    (Lieberman 21). The practice began with the development of India's technology universities and training infrastructure. The programming skills needed in software development are readily available in countries like India and China. A company can hire well-trained, professionally educated IT workers from India at a significant savings over hiring IT workers in the west (Lieberman 16). A technology worker costs some five times less in India than in America, which is the primary incentive to outsource work. The global availability of digital internet connections, combined with communications tools such as email, instant messaging, faxes, videoconferences, and cellular phones has empowered the foreign worker to provide services that do not necessarily require direct physical contact (Lieberman 15).

    • Essay length: 1208 words
  21. Formal Specification, Verification, and Automatic Test Generation of ATM Routing Protocol: PNNI

    Conversely, suppose that there are faults in PNNI in a multiple node network. Since it is a hierarchical protocol, we can group the nodes into two peer groups. Each peer group then behaves like a single node. These two connected peer groups behave like our previous two nodes, so the faults will manifest in this two-node network as well. Therefore, we confine ourselves to a two-node network for our verification and testing study. The tool set we use is PROMELA, SPIN [3] [5], and PITHIA [4] for modeling, simulating, and generating tests for the protocols, respectively.

    • Essay length: 5529 words
  22. Give an overview of computer networks, describing some of the different kinds of network

    * Wide-area networks (WANs): The computers are further apart and are connected by telephone lines or radio waves. * Campus-area networks (CANs): The computers are within a limited geographic area, such as a campus or military base. * Metropolitan-area networks (MANs): A data network designed for a town or city. * Home-area networks (HANs): A network contained within a user's home that connects a person's digital devices In addition to these types, the following characteristic is also used to categorise different types of networks: Network Topologies John Wobus (1994)

    • Essay length: 903 words
  23. What is a Topology?

    Another advantage of the bus topology is that computers can be added and removed without affecting the rest of the network. 1.3 Disadvantages of a bus topology? The disadvantages of a bus topology are that it is unreliable and the fastest computers delay the slower computers communication with the network. A break in the network will cause the whole network not to work. The performance of the network is decreased when more computers are added. 1.4 Where are bus networks used?

    • Essay length: 853 words
  24. Produce a report for the Managing Director of Animal World Magazine outlining different ways of implementing a client-server Local Area Network (LAN) for the business.

    The termination absorbs the electrical energy and stop reflections. Example A bus is being used by small business. Advantages o It's easy to add nodes in the bus network with repeater that boots the signal and allows it to travel a longer distance. o It's cheap because it needs less cable than star topology. o There is no single point failure in bus because there is no Hub. o It works well for small network Disadvantages o Entire network will stop communicating if there is a break in the backbone cable o Terminators are needed at the end of the backbone cable o Cant use it in large building

    • Essay length: 4882 words
  25. T1, T3, and SONET Networks.

    Advantages of T1 Each T1 is equivalent to 24 separate circuits between two sites, an advantage for T1 because multiple lines and multiple-site networks are expensive and hard to manage. The end-user equipment at each site can be PBXs, videoconferencing systems, imaging systems, or host computers. T1s connecting two PBXs are called tie trunks. For some old PBXs that cannot directly receive a T1 signal, a T1 line must first be terminated at a channel bank. Analog lines are subject to noise and signal deterioration, and equipment that is used for reconstructing the analog signal cannot make them suitable for data transmission, because analog lines amplify both original signal and noise.

    • Essay length: 2247 words

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