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AS and A Level: Policy, Strategy & Systems
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- Marked by Teachers essays 1
- Peer Reviewed essays 2
Examine the key features around the growth, development and policing of cyber crime in the 21st century.4 star(s)
However it didn?t take long for these hackers to realise their potential and what they could actually be doing, soon it then escalated and they became more educated and more confident in hacking. These hackers could now be described as ?attackers?. There are a few types of attacks that can be made on a computer. One is Denial of Service (DoS) attacks. This is a system set up which sends out a fake email to an individual, it could be to check their password for online banking or make credit card payments etc.
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Illegal music downloads. This Essay will treat and analyze main points of advantages and disadvantages of unauthorized media files sharing; Government's aspiration to put down a breach of copyright; the influence of free and unlimited music downloads on
Nowadays almost every Internet user has access to various computer programs for music downloads. For that reason, in a short time sharing music files has become a big issue for the music industry. Despite the fact, that downloading music from Internet is illegal, almost every internet user swaps huge amount of songs every day without any worries about the consequences, which may be versatile. Firstly, piracy downloading of music destroys sales of albums, which has become a huge loss for the music industry. According to the Independent news article "in 1997, 78 million singles were sold in the UK and last year, it was just 8.6 million" (The Independent, 8 July 2009), which shows, that amount of sold music singles has decreased almost by 90% in the last thirteen years.
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http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/technology/4575255.stm In this year Christmas, UK online sales will increase by 40% this year to �7 billion, up from �5 billion in 2005. It is predicted that an average of �4 million will be spent every hour in the 10 weeks up to Christmas. http://www.e-consultancy.com/news-blog/362164/online-shopping-boosts-october-retail-sales-figures.html Identify Theft The information age has provided criminals with lots of new opportunities for crime. ID theft is where someone collects other people personal data and uses them to open bank accounts and get credit cards, loans, state benefits and documents such as passports and driving licenses in their name.
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Computer crime can broadly be defined as criminal activity involving an information technology infrastructure, including illegal access
[LexisNexis, 2008] The three definitions used, for explaining the term computer misuse are quite different from each other. All the definitions covers the whole aspect of computer misuse for example the first definition used, of 'Computer Misuse Act' is quite a narrow definition which states three offenses, other definition of 'Cyber Crime' involves everything that is to be covered on the internet from child pornography to infringements of copyrights etc. The last definition used, is 'Computer Crime' it is again a very broad definition and covers things like virus, hacking, alteration and deletion of data etc. The examples of these definitions are listed below: In England and Wales, under Computer Misuse Act, it is an offense to send
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It basically stops legitimate information to get through to the server and stop legitimate service to respond. This will make customers go to other websites and the company that has been attacked by this lose crucial customers and a significant amount of money as their website is not responding. This is done by a particular person sending lots of blank server request which overloads the server/system and it stops getting a request. Halting E-commerce Transactions If for instance a particular person hacks into a website they can basically stop transactions so that the organisations lose customers and money.
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By having an official website can give the organisation lots of benefits. Consumers will be able to see what kind of items they sell and whether they sell the right product for the right price that the customers are after. Other benefits are that it will also allow the other customers that are not local i.e. people from Liverpool or London etc, to see if they sell a particular product in their shop instead of driving to the actual shop and then finding out that they don't actually sell that particular product/item.
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"business goals always shape the company's use of technology, never vice versa" (McAfee, 2004). This portrays Inditex as being entirely business-led where organisational goals invariably define technological innovation. This ethos confirms their desire not to waste money on new systems which do not provide a business value or solution to a specific business problem. McAfee relates to this theory as an "inside-out approach". To sum up the arguments, Inditex has one principle which fully shows that their IT/IS environment is Traditional: "computerisation is standardised and targeted". You can see this on the low IT budget which is estimated 0.5% of revenue and the IT staff of 50.
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(Lieberman 21). The practice began with the development of India's technology universities and training infrastructure. The programming skills needed in software development are readily available in countries like India and China. A company can hire well-trained, professionally educated IT workers from India at a significant savings over hiring IT workers in the west (Lieberman 16). A technology worker costs some five times less in India than in America, which is the primary incentive to outsource work. The global availability of digital internet connections, combined with communications tools such as email, instant messaging, faxes, videoconferences, and cellular phones has empowered the foreign worker to provide services that do not necessarily require direct physical contact (Lieberman 15).
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This is the base fabric of the network. o Token Ring switching-Offers the same functionality as Ethernet switching but uses Token Ring technology. You can use a Token Ring switch as either a transparent bridge or source-route bridge. o Copper Data Distributed Interface (CDDI)-Provides a single-attachment station (SAS) or dual-attachment station (DAS) to two Category 5 unshielded twisted-pair (UTP), 100 Mbps RJ-45 connectors. o Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI)-Provides an SAS or DAS connection to the FDDI backbone network using two multimode, media interface connector (MIC)
- Word count: 1971
located within close proximity of each other. This distance is generally limited to 2 kilometers. A MAN is a network that connects two or more LANs. It is basically a larger version of a LAN and it's distance is generally limited to 50 kilometers. An Air Force base network is considered a MAN. WANs link LANs or MANs by using long distance communication links leased or purchased from telecommunication companies without any distance limits. The Internet is a good example of a WAN. There are also Wireless networks, which are not constrained by wire and, therefore, can be used in places where it is difficult or impossible to install wire.
- Word count: 1703