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T1, T3, and SONET Networks.

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��ࡱ�>�� 13����0�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������5@ ��0�#bjbj�2�2 (.�X�X�������������������8" .��vVVVVVVVV$�RO�,�VVVVV,��VVA���V�V�V�V������VJ �����Vd�W0�� � ��$����� �� VV�VVVVV,,�T1, T3, and SONET Networks Roohollah Hajbandeh Broadband networks are configured through the use of several types of digital communications links. The most common of these, which have been in use by communications carriers for approximately 20 years and available to users for approximately a decade, are T1 and T3 links. These will be superseded eventually by the synchronous optical network (SONET), a set of standards for broadband networks that operate over fiber-optic links and that will provide more versatile bandwidth to both carriers and users. T1 NETWORKS T1 is a digital communications system for simultaneously transmitting 24 voice, data, and video signals over the same circuit. The original users of T1 were telephone companies and government agencies. Because each T1 is equivalent to 24 voicegrade circuits, the telephone companies� savings from using T1 were substantial. At first the cost of T1 to end users was prohibitive; since T1 services were tariffed during the 1980s, however, competition among major carriers has brought the prices down significantly. In addition, at first the need for higher bandwidth and additional services and capabilities increased the demand for T1 circuits such that the waiting time for installation was several months. ...read more.


T1 Functional Elements Channel Service Unit. The channel service unit is the first interface between the user and the network and the last regeneration point for the incoming signal before it is delivered to customer premises equipment. (In the past, channel service units were part of the network, but now they also are considered as customer premises equipment.) The channel service unit is responsible for general line monitoring functions, discussed later in this chapter. If a T1 multiplexer or piece of customer premises equipment fails, the channel service unit sends streams of 1s to the network to keep the connection alive until the customer premises equipment recovers. Some T1 multiplexers and PBXs have built-in channel service units. Current intelligent channel service units provide, by supporting the extended superframe format, sophisticated line monitoring and diagnostic capabilities. Basic channel service units have limited diagnostic and monitoring capabilities. If the long-distance carrier provides T1 service in the extended superframe format, the channel service unit should also support it. FCC Part 68 local tariffs require that each T1 be terminated on a channel service unit. Channel service units are also responsible for: � Protecting the network from the surge of a long stream of 0s. ...read more.


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