• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

T1, T3, and SONET Networks.

Extracts from this document...


��ࡱ�>�� 13����0�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������5@ ��0�#bjbj�2�2 (.�X�X�������������������8" .��vVVVVVVVV$�RO�,�VVVVV,��VVA���V�V�V�V������VJ �����Vd�W0�� � ��$����� �� VV�VVVVV,,�T1, T3, and SONET Networks Roohollah Hajbandeh Broadband networks are configured through the use of several types of digital communications links. The most common of these, which have been in use by communications carriers for approximately 20 years and available to users for approximately a decade, are T1 and T3 links. These will be superseded eventually by the synchronous optical network (SONET), a set of standards for broadband networks that operate over fiber-optic links and that will provide more versatile bandwidth to both carriers and users. T1 NETWORKS T1 is a digital communications system for simultaneously transmitting 24 voice, data, and video signals over the same circuit. The original users of T1 were telephone companies and government agencies. Because each T1 is equivalent to 24 voicegrade circuits, the telephone companies� savings from using T1 were substantial. At first the cost of T1 to end users was prohibitive; since T1 services were tariffed during the 1980s, however, competition among major carriers has brought the prices down significantly. In addition, at first the need for higher bandwidth and additional services and capabilities increased the demand for T1 circuits such that the waiting time for installation was several months. ...read more.


T1 Functional Elements Channel Service Unit. The channel service unit is the first interface between the user and the network and the last regeneration point for the incoming signal before it is delivered to customer premises equipment. (In the past, channel service units were part of the network, but now they also are considered as customer premises equipment.) The channel service unit is responsible for general line monitoring functions, discussed later in this chapter. If a T1 multiplexer or piece of customer premises equipment fails, the channel service unit sends streams of 1s to the network to keep the connection alive until the customer premises equipment recovers. Some T1 multiplexers and PBXs have built-in channel service units. Current intelligent channel service units provide, by supporting the extended superframe format, sophisticated line monitoring and diagnostic capabilities. Basic channel service units have limited diagnostic and monitoring capabilities. If the long-distance carrier provides T1 service in the extended superframe format, the channel service unit should also support it. FCC Part 68 local tariffs require that each T1 be terminated on a channel service unit. Channel service units are also responsible for: � Protecting the network from the surge of a long stream of 0s. ...read more.


This document was downloaded from Coursework.Info - The UK's Coursework Database - http://www.coursework.info/ This document was downloaded from Coursework.Info - The UK's Coursework Database - http://www.coursework.info/ This document was downloaded from Coursework.Info - The UK's Coursework Database - http://www.coursework.info/ This document was downloaded from Coursework.Info - The UK's Coursework Database - http://www.coursework.info/ This document was downloaded from Coursework.Info - The UK's Coursework Database - http://www.coursework.info/ This document was downloaded from Coursework.Info - The UK's Coursework Database - http://www.coursework.info/ ��!!}!~!�!�!a"b"�"�"E#F#�#�#�#�#�������������h5<Yh5<YOJQJh5<Yh5<YCJOJQJ%h5<Yh5<YOJQJfHq� ����)h5<Yh5<YCJOJQJfHq� ����h5<Yh*m&h5<Yh5<YmH sH h*m&h5<Y01- . : ; � ���������noij���K�����������������������������gd*m&!�#��K)* !!~!!�!�!�!�!�!�!b"c"d"e"�"�"�"�"F#G#H#I#��������������������������$a$gd5<Y$a$gd5<Ygd*m&I#�#�#�#�#�#�#������gd*m&$a$gd5<Y&1�h:p*m&��/ ��=!�'"�'#��$��%��D@�D NormalCJ_H aJmH nHsH tHDA@�D Default Paragraph FontRi�R Table Normal�4� l4�a� (k�(No ListDZ@�D *m& Plain TextCJOJQJ^JaJ4@4 5<YHeader ���!4 @4 5<YFooter ���!`�o"` 5<Ywatermark header$a$CJOJQJfHq� ����N�o2N 5<Ywatermark footer$a$ CJOJQJ�.���� ���z� ���z�� �r�V�:���#KI#�#�#� � ���ce��GI������alex�*m&5<Y�@����P@��Unknown������������G��z ��Times New Roman5V��Symbol3&� �z ��Arial7&�� �VerdanaG5�� �����h�MS Mincho-�3� fg?5� �z ��Courier New"1���hy)��y)��x)���5l�5l$�������43�� H�?������������������*m&��T1, T3, and SONET Networks TCoursework.Info Coursework - http://www.coursework.info/ - Redistribution ProhibitedTCoursework.Info Coursework - http://www.coursework.info/ - Redistribution Prohibitedalexalex�� ��Oh��+'��0x���$4��� ( 4 @ LX`hp�T1, T3, and SONET Networks UCoursework.Info Coursework - http://www.coursework.info/ - Redistribution ProhibitedualexewoUCoursework.Info Coursework - http://www.coursework.info/ - Redistribution Prohibitedu>Downloaded from Coursework.Info - http://www.coursework.info/is Normal.dotfalexl.d2exMicrosoft Word 10.0@@0պ��@v����@v�����5�� ��Õ.��+,��D��Õ.��+,��|8���H����� ���� � �UCoursework.Info Coursework - http://www.coursework.info/ - Redistribution ProhibitedoUCoursework.Info Coursework - http://www.coursework.info/ - Redistribution ProhibitedoUCoursework.Info Coursework - http://www.coursework.info/ - Redistribution Prohibitedo2lA T1, T3, and SONET Networks Titled@���+K_PID_LINKBASE CopyrightDownloaded FromCan RedistributeOwner�A4http://www.coursework.comcoursework.comehttp://www.coursework.com -No, do not redistributecoursework.com/ ��������!"#$%&'����)*+,-./��������2������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������Root Entry�������� �F0����4�1Table��������WordDocument��������(.SummaryInformation(���� DocumentSummaryInformation8������������(CompObj������������j������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ ���� �FMicrosoft Word Document MSWordDocWord.Document.8�9�q ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Policy, Strategy & Systems section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Policy, Strategy & Systems essays

  1. Download services

    Not only update the data from internet, people can also upgrade their software to newer version through Internet. Like if people using the Window Media Player version 9, when the software is found the Window Media Player version 10 are available to download, it will come out a message to asking you to upgrade it.

  2. Designing Switched LAN Internetworks.

    switching fabrics * SVC and PVC support Just as there are routers and LAN switches available at various price/performance points with different levels of functionality, ATM switches can be segmented into the following four distinct types that reflect the needs of particular applications and markets: * Workgroup ATM switches *

  1. Computer Networks.

    Dialling can be done automatically by the modem in a communications system, as the telephone numbers are stored in the computer. There are two types of telephone line: the standard telephone line and the dedicated or leased line. We all use the standard line for using telephones but it can also be used for transporting data.

  2. Threats to Organisations and Systems. Describe the countermeasures available to an organisation that ...

    There are two main stages within the cycle of encryption; first the data need to be locked up (encrypt) when the data reaches the other party then it needs to be unlocked (decrypted). Now not just any Tom, Dick or Harry could receive the data and use it, there is

  1. implementation of an ITC system

    data and word processing: For the desktops: Genuine Windows XP Professional with SP2 (this supports domains and is especially efficient for networking, as domain controllers and networking administrators have a lot more control over all the network. All software is compatible with this operating system, such as an office package or networks administrate software; like Win VNC.

  2. Building Local Area Networks

    The presence of blackspots could potentially cause irreversible data loss, as users roam within the WLAN infrastructure. The signal strength of an individual waveform will diminish according to the distance traveled. The loss of signal strength should follow the 1/d2 law, where d is the distance between the transmitter and the receiver.

  1. Formal Specification, Verification, and Automatic Test Generation of ATM Routing Protocol: PNNI

    This hierarchy mechanism is built upon groupings of switches into peer groups. Within a peer group all switches share the same routing information. A peer group can be viewed by other switches as a single logical switch. This single logical switch can itself be a member of another higher level peer group.

  2. Produce a report for the Managing Director of Animal World Magazine outlining different ways ...

    Failure Token Ring Fibre Optic Multimode Connector - C/S Token Damaged Wire Ethernet Cable Summary Specification Cable Type Maximum length 10BaseF Fiber Optic 2000 meters Mesh A computer that is directly connected to all other computers is known as mesh.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work