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the role of ict

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Components of an Information System Difference between Hardware and Software > Hardware: � Physical equipment that makes up a computer system � If you can kick it or take an axe to it it is hardware. > Software: � Programs, routines and procedures (together with their associated documentation) which can be run on a computer system. It is important not to confuse the media used to transport software with software itself � A CD is a piece of hardware which you can touch and kick and it may contain software which you cannot touch. � The CD is not software it is hardware Examples of Hardware � Central Processor � Peripherals - these are hardware devices which are attached to the central processor: " They can be classified into four types: Input: - Keyboard, Mouse, Scanner Output: - Monitor, Speakers Backing Storage: - Hard Disk, Floppy Disk Drive Communications: - Modem Hardware & Software Standardisation In general, hardware produced by one company will not be compatible with that produced by another Hardware: � A POS terminal by IBM could not plug into an ICL system Software: � A program written for the Mac would not run on a PC Software standardisation � Output may appear different: " E.g. ...read more.


� Can be used to signal to hearing impaired people Buzzers � Gives confirmatory actions " Set sounds to events in Windows " Bar Codes beep to indicate successful entry Printers Three main types of printers: � Impact Printers � Inkjet Printers � Laser Printers Choice of: � Colour � Black and White Selection of different resolutions Impact Printers * Physical Connection between print head and paper * Noisy * Slow (chain printers can be very fast) * Cheap to run * Colour or Black and White * Low Resolution * Can do Carbon Copies * Print on multi part paper InkJet Printers � Ink is fired at the page and the number of DPI can be very high � High resolution � Colour or black and white � High running costs � Faster than a dot matrix but not as fast as laser � Can not print carbon copies Laser Printers � High Quality Images � Fast Printing � Colour or Black and White (Colour is expensive) � Medium to low running costs � Excellent Quality � Need special transparencies to produce OHPs � Cannot do Carbon Copies Monitor (VDU) > Most common Output device > Range of Sizes - standard is 17", but 21" or greater is available for specialists: ...read more.


software Generic > These are off-the-shelf packages which do not meet a specific purpose but serve a general purpose > For example: � Microsoft Office and components � Corel Suite � Lotus Suite " Word Processors, Spreadsheets, Databases > The software can then be customised to produce the result you want. Tailor-Made Either: � Bespoke " The application is written for the purpose by a software house Disads: Time consuming, expensive, limited support/books. Ads: Fulfils purpose, individual support Or: � Customisation " A generic application is customised using a programming language Disads: Need to purchase the application and you get more than required. Ads: Cheaper, lots of support. Off-the-Shelf > Purchasing solutions from a shop without alteration > For example: � SAGE payroll package � Heritage Library Database > The idea is to be able to open the package and run the software which delivers a specific solution > Can be generic (word processors) Programming Languages > There are a variety of programming languages available. > Each language has a specific purpose � FORTRAN - Formula Translation " Mathematical and Scientific � COBOL - Common Business Orientated Language " Business, Data Processing > Languages can also be used to enhance the application: � Use of VBA to write macros, etc 1 g.kinyanjui.2004 ...read more.

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