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Various computing questions

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Q=1 EXPLAIN IN DETAIL a. TRANSACTION PROCESSING SYSTEMS. It is the processing in which a system respond to a user's command to carry out some operation to and fro. The request or command is called TRANSACTION, and the system carrying it out is called TRANSACTION PROCESSING SYSTEM e.g cash machines. Transaction processing systems are the systems working at a low level of any organizational structure being operated by data entry operators etc to collect and store data which is needed to be transported then to decisional level of organisations. But it is important to make sure nothing goes wrong at this level of handling data before it is transported to upper level to be manipulated and then making decisions based on information provided. "There is some support for the propositions that (1) Transaction processing systems should be able to be managed within each work group in an organisation, managed that is with respect to work stations in use and functionality available on those workstations. (2) exhibit very little model behaviour. (3) support a high degree of operator independence or asynchornity." REFERNCE: http://www.csse.monash.edu.au/~cavram/papers/tp/tr94-02h.html There are 9 types of transaction processing models 1: Batch systems: 2: Monitor systems : 3: Time sharing systems 4: Advanced virtual terminal front end systems 5: Client server systems 6: Electronic mail and forms 7: Database based groupware 8: (IVR) systems 9: (EDI) systems "Transaction processing systems are information systems which collect data and distribute operational data both within and between organisations. The wide spread use of networks and personal computers (used as terminals) has provided feasible new options for the design of transaction processing systems" b. DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEMS: "Decision Support Systems (DSS) are a class of computerized information systems that support decision-making activities. DSS are interactive computer-based systems and subsystems intended to help decision makers use communications technologies, data, documents, knowledge and/or models to successfully complete decision process tasks" Reference: http://dssresources.com/ Decision support systems are the computer information application which collects and analyze data and then present it to the decision making people of organisation i.e managers . ...read more.

Middle

Serial communication Q=2 WHAT IS A NETWORK ?EXPLAIN IN DETAIL TYPES OF NETWORKS AND NETWORK TOPOLOGIES. NETWORKING: Linking of two or more computers or systems for the purpose of sharing data is called networking.The two major kind of networks are LAN i.e local area network and WAN i.e wide area network. . LAN LAN deals with the systems working in a close proximity and hence doesn't require complex networking. Local area networks provide high speed and effieciency and has fault tolerance. Usually LAN is set up in small area for example a building where fewer systems are networked together for people working in the building to easily transmit information and communicate with each other and share data. . WAN WAN on the other hand deals with much larger networks and can accommodate larger working area for example cities ,countries etc. Wide area network depend upon some larger transmitters eg phone lines to connect smaller networks like LAN's into WAN like internet. DIFFERENT TYPES OF NETWORKS: 1.TOKEN RING NETWORK: A network with a ring topology that passes tokens from one attaching device to another; for example, the IBM Token-ring network. Token-ring adapter type 1: A token-ring interface coupler (TIC) that operates at 4-Mbps (megabits per second) token-ring speed. Token-ring adapter type 2: A token-ring interface coupler (TIC) supported only on an IBM 3745 Communication Controller. The adapter can be configured to support 4-Mbps (megabits per second) or 16-Mbps token-ring speed and to support subarea and peripheral nodes on the same adapter. When configured for 16-Mbps, the token-ring adapter type 2 provides the capability for early token release. Token-ring interface coupler (TIC): An adapter that can connect a 3720, 3725, or 3745 Communication Controller to an IBM Token-Ring Network. Token-ring network: (1) A ring network that allows unidirectional data transmission between data stations, by a token passing procedure, such that the transmitted data return to the transmitting station. ...read more.

Conclusion

2. Competition: The advantage is for those who get away by setting up attractive web site with easy to access features and which doesn't breakdown i.e is well maintained with competitive prices. And it is a disadvantage for organizations who were doing good when they were operating in area where it was there monopoly and their goods were bought at whatever price they would put on. 3. Bargaining power of buyers: It is bane for buyers or I should say poor buyers who were forced to buy their needs to whatever price and choice was available. But now in this era information systems have solved this problem by setting up enterprises and online shopping which now in order to stay in business with extreme competition around , they sell wider range of products with innovations, bargain prices and different options and facilities like free delivery etc. which has increased the bargaining power of consumers or buyers. So if we see all above factors which are still only few of many around of information systems, we need to see how they could be boon. Well in my opinion there could be reasons which could lead to any uncertainity which could be at root level i.e knowledge level. Because if not necessary measurements were done at time of designing information system for any particular organization then they can end up in disaster. Like if the information system set up was not customer focused in terms of understanding their needs and demands, if it was not regularly monitored and upgraded as time went by and newer changes were made in organization, if political influence was considered instead of real and fair way to where and when to implement it, if cost to run and maintain was underestimated etc etc. So, if the information systems are designed properly and then used properly there is no point of thinking them as boon. They are pure bless of being bane. ...read more.

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