• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Is Sex is commonly used to describe the innate biological characteristics of humans constituting their femaleness or maleness?

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Sex is commonly used to describe the innate biological characteristics of humans constituting their femaleness or maleness. Gender on the other hand, covers the social characteristics and usages associated with one sex or the other. Since such roles and customs can vary and be modified it follows that masculine and feminine the terms applied to the respective genders are much more flexible than female and male. In order to cover the subject of gender and crime it is important to explain its prehistory and standing as well as addressing the extensive material which appeared in the modern period of high fertility. Of course the definition of what is a woman or a man by no means always straightforward. Since such roles and customs can vary and be modified it follows that masculine and feminine the terms applied to the respective genders are much more flexible than female and male. Feminism has raised many uncomfortable questions for criminologist and has been critical of mainstream criminology for its gender-neutral focus and its exclusion of women. ...read more.

Middle

Liberal feminism views women as an equal part of society. It centers on rights and non-discrimination. Criminology much of the work of this group has been associated with a study of the discriminatory practices of the criminal justice system, whether these be in favour of or more likely against women. Socialist feminism is interested in the effects of both patriarchy and capitalism on criminality. Cultural feminism explores and often celebrates differences between men and women. It is interest in women's culture and socializing qualities. Post-modern feminism celebrates difference in distinctive way. Its intention is to give voice to any element that may have been silenced in the past. Being woman-centred and stressing the importance of gender is social structures and relations are at least two importance key components. As far as criminology is concerned there are if anything greater problems. Morris seek to define a canon work which has certain core feature although in a later account they suggest a diversity of perspectives. While Smart doubts the possibility and the validity of such enterprise, simply mixing feminism into criminology. ...read more.

Conclusion

The offender supposedly lacks the intelligence to comprehend the law or to control his own behaviour. The nonofender is seem as intelligent enough to understand the law an control very low levels of intelligence may not engage in crime or because they are unable to recognize an opportunity for crime. The emphasis of this approach is on intelligence usually measured by IQ test rather than on the whole personality of an individual. The inadequancy of these test is one reason to view with some scepticism the conclusions of research on intelligence and criminality. Anyway theories they are more commonly based upon empricl research which can be more easily assumed. Most of them assume that each individual has a central or core personality which can explain reactions to most stimuli and will determine the likelihood of becoming criminally involved. However different theories link different personality types to criminality, which means difficult to choose between them. The criminal justice system expects them to determine the responsibility of individual so that the court can better decide how to punish while the system, society and the offender all want the offenders behaviour to alter so as not to include criminality in the future. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Machinery of Justice section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Machinery of Justice essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Corporate Separate Personality

    3 star(s)

    Following the general rule which is represented by the Saloman case is not enough for every situation. Every situation has different aspects which the judiciary has to decide on who loses out. There is no set statue which can be used as a provision to when the corporate veil should be lifted.

  2. A critical evaluation of labelling theory.

    is so rarely acknowledged as a cause of crime, it will continue to exacerbate the problem as the government implement tougher policies involving more prison sentences and resulting paradoxically in higher crime rates. Labelling theory has contributed a great deal to the understanding of social reaction to crime, however as

  1. Why do young people join gangs and other subcultures? How does a criminal sub ...

    Subcultures are often defined via their opposition to the values of the larger culture to which they belong, although this definition is not universally agreed on by theorists. Wikipedia (2006) Members of a subculture will often signal their membership through a distinctive and symbolic use of style.

  2. I will look at different black theologies and different theories of justice, and attempt ...

    This is apparent when Marx says that "right can never be higher than the economic structure of society and its cultural development conditioned thereby."9 Starting in the late Seventies, writers like Cornel West and James Cone began to integrate the Marxist critique of capitalism into black theology.

  1. "Examine why sexual offenders attract so much attention these days. How has the Criminal ...

    Due to its level of interactivity, with provisions for online chat, instant messaging and online gaming, the internet is a very attractive medium for children and hence makes it the ideal place for sexual offenders to groom children. It would appear that the media plays a key role in framing

  2. The Canadian Justice system towards aboriginal offenders

    The sentencing circle was first initiated into the criminal justice process by Judge Barry Stewart in the paradigmatic case of R. v. Moses. Anticipating the upheaval in aboriginal sentencing practices which would inevitably ensue, Justice Stewart began his judgment by stating that "The reasons for this sentence will take us

  1. The Criminal Justice System: A Questionable Egalitarian Model

    In this regard, it has been established that "roughly 90 percent to 95 percent of all criminal convictions are arrived at through plea bargaining" (p. 132). Vago agrees with the view that plea bargaining is a serious problem in terms of the attainment of justice.

  2. Expert Testimony and Its Value In the Justice System

    but that does not instantly mean that the chances of the defendant being innocent are one in a million. When an expert witness provides evidence to a Jury in such a way it is very likely that they not question the reasoning that is given to them.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work