• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Critically consider one invasive method and one non-invasive method of studying the brain

Extracts from this document...


Jon Golby        TG = 330M        30/04/07

Critically consider one invasive method and one non-invasive method of studying the brain

There are a number of invasive methods of studying the brain.  One such technique is ablation and lesion production.

The ablation technique involves surgically removing or destroying brain tissue.  A study into this technique was conducted by Flourens (1820); who showed that the removal of thin slices of brain tissue; resulted in them displaying poor co-ordination and sense of balance but, they experienced no other difficulties.

Meanwhile, lesion production involves deliberately injuring a specific area of the brain and observing the behavioural changes that occur as a result.  The aim of lesion studies is to tell us something about how different areas of the brain are connected.

...read more.


Other invasive methods of investigating the brain include; chemical stimulation of the brain and Electrical stimulation of the brain (ESB).  One such investigation was conducted by Olds + Milner (54).  In this experiment, they found that when they stimulated the hypothalamus of rats, they appeared to increase the frequency of whatever behaviour they were engaged in.  Further research that they conducted on rats also hinted to the existence of both “pleasure centres” and “pain centres” within the brain.  Again, as with all invasive methods; there are ethical considerations such as the possibility of distress being caused to the rats; the lack of an ability to generalise the results of the experiments to humans, (since the experiments were conducted on animals); and the issue of “localisation of function” against “distributed function”

...read more.


still not shown.  In order to see this, a PET scan would need to be used.

CAT’s, MRI’s and PET’s are all used within medicine to help diagnose diseases such as epilepsy/schizophrenia through analysis of the results that are obtained from the scans.

However, more recent techniques help to show brain function holistically e.g. fMRI, MEG etc.  These provide a much clearer image of the structure of the brain thus providing more information about the brain for the “localisation of function” versus “distributed function” debate.  They also show more clearly the individual functions of the brain.  However, they are very expensive and difficult to access, as e.g. a MEG must be carried out in a magnetically shielded area to prevent inaccurate readings being obtained.

...read more.

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Core & Pure Mathematics section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Core & Pure Mathematics essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Estimate a consumption function for the UK economy explaining the economic theory and statistical ...

    3 star(s)

    The most commonly one is the permanent income theory. It states that consumer determines their consumption on the basis of a longer view available, taking into account not just current income but future expected income and any change in the value of their wealth. It gives rise to a consumption function of the form: ct =c0+c1ytp Fits the data

  2. 2D and 3D Sequences Project Plan of Investigation

    Sequence 20: 2 (202) - 40 + 1 2(400) - 40 + 1 800 - 40 + 1 800 - 49 = 761 Instead of illustrating the pattern I am going to use the method I used at the start of this piece of coursework.

  1. Numerical Method of Algebra.

    The more decimal place the more accurate the answer of the root is. X Y -0.69 -0.050563533 -0.68 -0.029629888 -0.67 -0.009507116 -0.66 0.009848393 -0.65 0.028477721 -0.64 0.046419535 -0.63 0.063710194 -0.62 0.080383854 -0.61 0.096472572 Tbl DS-03: Step 3 X Y -0.669 -0.007537736 -0.668 -0.005575983 -0.667 -0.003621818 -0.666 -0.001675197 -0.665 0.000263921 -0.664

  2. Numerical Method (Maths Investigation)

    1.22584E-05 -0.66512 3.16215E-05 -0.66511 5.09839E-05 Tbl DS-06: Step 6 I have stopped at Step 6, as it will get more and more numbers behind the decimal point if I continue on. However, I haven't got to an answer that I satisfy.

  1. Change of Sign Method.

    The above illustration shows that for x0=2, the gradient of y=g(x)= 1/4( x3+2x2-4.58) is greater than that of y=x, i.e. greater than 1. Without further calculation, this can be seen by the fact that the line y=g(x) is steeper than the line of y=x. The gradient of y=g(x) 1/4( x3+2x2-4.58)

  2. Math Portfolio Type II - Applications of Sinusoidal Functions

    Toronto Location: 44?N 79?W Date Day Time of Sunrise January 1 1 7.85h February 1 32 7.57h March 1 60 6.88h April 1 91 5.97h May 1 121 5.13h June 1 152 4.60h July 1 182 4.62h August 1 213 5.07h September 1 244 5.65h October 1 274 6.22h November

  1. Change of Sign Method

    1 -1 -2.33333 -1.90831 -1.6162 -1.46103 -1.41736 -1.41423 -1.41421 -1.41421 This shows that the Newton Raphson method has failed to find the required root between x=0 and x=1 but the root at x=-1.4142 therefore it is a failure. Rearranging f(x)=0 in the form x=g(x)

  2. Change of sign method.

    For example if there are three roots between two integers, the spreadsheets can only find one of those roots and so it appears as though the other two does not exist unless a graph is also drawn. These roots are unable to be found, and therefore the method fails for some equations.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work