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Does violence on televison lead to violence in real life?

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Introduction

DOES VIOLENCE ON TELEVISION LEAD TO VIOLENCE IN REAL LIFE? S Hoyland R Walters P J Daly Furness College Channelside Barrow-in-Furness Cumbria LA14 2PJ INTRODUCTION The debate on television violence has been on going for many years now and has produced a wide and varied set of views and research results. Many well established psychologists have attempted, through various types of experiments and observations, to either support or negate a link between violence on television and the violent episodes in "real" life. These sets of data have thrown up some interesting views and personal conclusions regarding the subject of television violence, and we will show the varying views and conclusions that some of these psychologists have reached; and by using a respected and well known system we will try to show the views of a small section of our community. Previous research into the link between violence and television Over the years numerous psychologists have produced thousands of experiments and or research to support or negate the link between violence and television. In 1987 a psychologist named Cumberbatch produced data on the actual amounts of violence found to be in British television programmes. ...read more.

Middle

of asking the question and then giving the subject five possible answers, strongly agree, moderately agree, unsure, moderately disagree and strongly disagree (the first two and last two can be reversed) Questions one, two, five and six were prepared using the answer scale, 1: strongly agree, 2: moderately agree, 3 unsure, 4: moderately disagree and 5: strongly disagree. Questions three, four, seven and eight were prepared using the answer scale, 1: strongly disagree, 2: moderately disagree, 3: unsure, 4: moderately agree and 5: strongly agree. The reason for this is to prevent untrue answers and is explained in the next section. Why are there anomalies in preparation and analysis When preparing the questionnaire we realised that we could possibly encounter problems in the way people would answer the stated questions, the Likert scale is specifically designed to prevent this. For example we could encounter people who would pick only their favourite number and pay no attention to the questions being asked, or people would stick to the left side or right side of each column. The way the scale is set out at the moment both someone who is anti and someone who is pro television would both score the same, 24, and somebody who is unsure of every question asked would score 24 as well. ...read more.

Conclusion

Dollard et al (1939) adopted a very different approach, the frustration-aggression hypothesis. This hypothesis claimed that aggression is always a consequence of frustration and the existence of frustration always leads to aggression. Dollard et al view aggression as innate and in doing so agree with the findings of Freud and Lorenz, but, say it would only take place in particular opportune circumstances. Aggression could possibly be delayed or it could be aimed at a third party, a scapegoat. It is as if the mind thinks things through and only acts when the time is perceived to be right, or is advantageous. Another view is that of Berkowitz (1966) who says we rely on certain cues to trigger our responses. Frustration leads to anger, which is different from actual aggression, the frustration cues a readiness to act. Then only an environmental cue will actually trigger aggression. This theory is somewhat similar to the frustration-aggression hypothesis but it has the intermediary response that takes the form of anger, something has to come along that tips us over the edge. Bandura (1961, 1963, 1965, 1973, 1994) produced a theory on social learning. He claimed that aggressive behaviour was learned through observation, imitation and reinforcement of aggressive models. Even non-tangible reinforcements such as the words " be tough" can have the same effect. ...read more.

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