• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

How far do you agree that the emergence of television as a mass medium of communication was the key turning point improving leisure opportunities for ordinary people in the twentieth century?

Extracts from this document...


How far do you agree that the emergence of television as a mass medium of communication was the key turning point improving leisure opportunities for ordinary people in the twentieth century? In terms of leisure opportunities, the twentieth century has seen a vast explosion of activities. Although the emergence of TV is a relatively important factor in improving leisure opportunities, it is actually only one of many developments and changes that took place to improve leisure opportunities throughout the twentieth century. Moreover the improvement was not just the result of developments in communication but also economic, political and social changes which are all interconnected. Just before the turn of the twentieth century, a survey by Rowntree showed that most ordinary women spent their time doing chores such as cooking, cleaning, washing etc and her leisure activities usually involved visiting family on the Sabbath. The ordinary man would go out for five, maybe six days a week working excessively long hours and have time only for about two or three leisure activities such as drinking or watching a football match. However at the turn of the twenty first century things are quite different with women and men both going out to work with relatively more leisure time and a bigger range of activities to pursue such as cinema, radio, TV, personal computers, nightclubs, theme parks and many more. The working week has fallen from 54 hours at the beginning of the century then 48 hours in 1919 and then again to 40 hours per week in 1975 after a European Council recommendation. ...read more.


Digital provides 'cinema like' picture quality and CD sound quality with 1,100 lines, doubling the amount of information sent with each frame. The number of channels available has exceeded the targeted 500. Around 58% of the population have access to alternatives to terrestrial TV. People can now shop, send e-mail, order takeaway, gamble and book holidays through their TV. The availability of these facilities does not necessarily mean that there has been an improvement in leisure opportunities. Critics argue that this has actually led to more anti-social behaviour as people become more reluctant to leave their home and interact with other people. As a mass medium of communication, radio was first broadcast on 1922, because prior to this, it was seen as vital for military purposes. For the first time, ordinary people could listen to music; hear the news about national events in their own homes. John Reith the Director General of BBC after 1927 saw radio as not only an entertainment medium but one to improve cultural and moral standards among the public. The growth of radio increased steadily. Households owning a license in 1924 were 10%, in 1930 it was 30%, in 1933 it was 48% and in 1939 it was 71%. However many poorer ordinary working class people were excluded. The emergence of radio did not improve leisure for all ordinary people but a great deal of them. In the 1920's, listening to radio was predominantly a male hobby and an individual one. ...read more.


etc. In schools and at home, personal computers are used to reduce the time involved in researching, writing and calculating etc. In the office, computers are used for numerous activities allowing for the 9am-5pm work patterns and therefore leaving time to pursue activities in the evening and weekends. The growth of the Internet has not only opened up opportunities for leisure but has become a leisure activity in itself. Ordinary people have access to a wealth of information at their fingertips, businesses and individuals can advertise online, they can buy, sell, gamble and communicate on the World Wide Web. Ordinary people can communicate (chat), e-mail, and play games with people on the other side of the world. The growth of the Internet has been spectacular, 11.4 million homes have the Internet and 46% of the population have access to the web. An improvement in leisure opportunities therefore has not been the result of only the emergence of television but also a number of changes and developments that took place over the twentieth century. The developments have each had their own hayday and therefore been a key turning point for improving leisure opportunities for those people around at the time of the development. The improvement in leisure opportunities was actually the result of the process of change throughout the century. Each medium has had its peak and then another medium emerged to become the new 'hype', this process has continued during the century. The emergence of television was not the key turning point in improving leisure opportunities. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Radio section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Radio essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    What are the advantages and disadvantages of the BBC?

    3 star(s)

    In the 1950's Britain was reluctant to allow commercial television, in more recent times and perhaps as a result of the new technology requirement and it could account as a great source of funds. The British Governments think that they have the right and some would say public duty to

  2. Sir John Reith was the first Director General of the BBC, and he had ...

    competition in terms of good programming and quality rather than numbers, and a concern for national identity. In addition to this, it promises to cater for all interests, tastes and minorities, as well as providing guidelines that liberate programme makers and not restrict them.

  1. Describe popular culture in Britain at the beginning of the 1960's (1960 - 1965) ...

    with only one channel, whatever was shown was incredibly influential on the viewers. Significant events then began to be broadcasted on BBC 1, such as sporting events and the Queen's Coronation. In 1955 ITV was introduced. This channel provided commercials for the viewers and was a channel purely with entertainment.

  2. Radio One Case

    IV. Recommendation and Implementation Radio One, Inc. should not let the opportunity presented by Clear Channel's divestiture pass it by. This is a rare opportunity to expand into urban top-50 markets like the one in L.A. Because Radio One, Inc. has the experience and financial resources to pursue this purchase, there is no good reason for it not to move forward.

  1. To what extent was the BBC in the 1920s the personal creation of John ...

    Secondly, Reith was influential on the BBC in the 1920s as he handled the company through a major social-political crisis, and utilised it to boost the company's credibility and influence. In 1927 a major dispute erupted between the trade union and a variety of industries.

  2. Explain the functions, trends and nature of ownership and control in the British Mass ...

    All programmes are designed for local audiences in each region. The ITV is controlled by the ITV Council, comprising the Chief Executives of each licensee. Each ITV licensee has rights over the programme schedule, and is responsible for the production and broadcasting of its own local programme and news services.

  1. Look at the sources - Were the Beatles were the most popular group ...

    Listening would also helped build their determination to do things as if they were listening to Luxemburg they had to be determined as it was only played at night, it was a very bad signal and adverts such as the Horas Batchelor and his impalliable gambling schemes based at Keynsham would be played every two seconds.

  2. How relevant is Reith's idea of public service broadcasting in relation to contemporary television?

    However in doing so, the BBC had to remain popular, as it was still the people paying for the programmes productions. The BBC also had to promote social and national unity, making programmes that catered for minority groups, and as the same time, sending out an image of national identity

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work