• Join over 1.2 million students every month
• Accelerate your learning by 29%
• Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month
Page
1. 1
1
2. 2
2
3. 3
3
4. 4
4
5. 5
5
6. 6
6

# The fundamental problem of layout planning for assembly is to determine the minimum number of stations (workers) and assign tasks to each station so that a desired level of output is achieved.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Defining the Layout Problem The fundamental problem of layout planning for assembly is to determine the minimum number of stations (workers) and assign tasks to each station so that a desired level of output is achieved. Notice several implications in this statement. First, the design focuses on achieving a desired level of productive capability.(output capacity). Second, if tasks are to be assigned to stations, the sequence of tasks must be considered. Which tasks must be done first, and which ones may follow? Finally, our concern is attaining desired output efficiently, without using unnecessary input resources. Capacity, Sequencing and Efficiency Let's illustrate these ideas with an example. A manufacturer is developing plans for a facility to make 320 aluminum storm windows. The desired minimum daily output capacity is 320 windows. Figure-I and Table-I show the tentative assembly line layout. The operations manager wants to know if this is a good design and if better designs are possible. A B C D E F G H Figure-I : Diagram for storm window assembly line Table - I: Initial assembly line layout for aluminum storm windows Work Station Preceding Work Station Task Assigned Task's Required Predecessor Task Time/Unit (in seconds) ...read more.

Middle

If the hourly wage is \$10, each day \$100 is paid for unnecessary idleness. Balancing the Line How can the cost of idleness be reduced? Perhaps the eight tasks (A to H in Table-I) can be reassigned so that more available employee time is used. Notice that if every station used up an equal amount of task time, no time would be idle time. The problem of equalizing stations in this way is called the line balancing problem, and solving it takes six steps: 1. Define tasks 2. Identify precedence requirements 3. Calculate minimum number of work stations required to produce desired output 4. Apply an assignment heuristic to assign tasks to each station 5. Evaluate effectiveness and efficiency 6. Seek further improvement For the example of the aluminum storm window facility, we have already taken the first step, defining tasks, shown in Table-I. The second step reminds us that tasks must be done in a specific sequence. Certainly the window units can not be packed until they are completely assembled. These sequence requirements are listed in Table-I under the heading Task's required Predecessor. Once the desired output is specified, we can calculate the theoretical minimum number of stations required, the third step in our solution. ...read more.

Conclusion

Table-IV: Assembly line design for 90-second cycle. Station 1 2 3 4 5 Effectiveness: 90 sec/unit, or 320 units/day Efficiency Tasks AD B CG EF H Time Available at Station (seconds/unit) 90 90 90 90 90 Total = 450 seconds Utilization (380/450) * 100 = 84.4 % Idleness (70/450) * 100 = 15.6 % Time Available at Station (seconds/unit) 90 80 90 70 50 Total = 380 seconds Time Available at Station (seconds/unit) 0 10 0 10 40 Total = 70 seconds At this stage, we may be able to improve the layout by trial and error, step 6 of our station. In addition many other heuristics may be used instead of LOT approach. Several computerized heuristics are available, and since different heuristics can lead to different layouts, managers may want to try more than one approach. There are occasions when effectiveness and efficiency can be increased by deviating from the procedure we have presented. Task sharing, for example, occurs when there are three stations manned by workers, all of whom are sometimes idle. We can reduce idleness by eliminating one worker, and letting the other two take turns doing the task at the third station. Other improvements are possible if more than one worker can be assigned to a single station. Finally, if the desired output exceeds capacity, bottlenecks may be reexamined. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Radio section.

## Found what you're looking for?

• Start learning 29% faster today
• 150,000+ documents available
• Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
• Join over 1.2 million students every month
• Accelerate your learning by 29%
• Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

# Related AS and A Level Radio essays

Radio One also has specialist shows which are often in the evenings and weekends. Examples of this are Westwood-strictly Hip-Hop (Friday nights-10-12) and Fabio and Grooverider-strictly Drum and Bass (Friday nights 2-4). The show changes drastically throughout the day to include all types of people's ages and interests.

2. ## For this coursework I will be reviewing the differences between radio stations. The radio ...

This is because they feel people of Britain want to hear this first than other matters later, and also they want to get across that they are concentrating on you, to get that closeness feel. Kix 96 have a different view they start of with the most important news first

deciding to invest in an internet presence rather than invest in Clear Channel's assets. The first alternative is for Radio One, Inc. to let the Clear Channel divestiture pass without purchasing any of the available stations and expand into other areas, such as internet and satellite broadcasts.

Part II: Contribution to public value 5. Contribution to the promotion of the BBC's public purposes 5.1 Sustaining citizenship and civil society BBC Asian Network should make a very important contribution to this purpose amongst its audience, primarily through its strong focus on accurate, impartial and independent news and current affairs presented in an accessible style for its target audience.

1. ## Media Studies assignment 3

The programmes of the two stations are quite different and this is why the target audience of both is different. Orchard Fm is run GWR and every station that is run by GWR has a very similar logo, this is because it's the GWR logo.

2. ## For this piece of coursework I have decided to make an investigation into language ...

Much of the punctuation, which is a feature of writing rather than speech, has been omitted, although capital letters have been used for proper nouns. 2) Silences are marked by a bracket () with (.) meaning a pause of one or more second.

1. ## The aims of our production was to meet the brief given to us, which ...

this by (5/11/02), as a way of ensuring we kept to a strict time schedule, within our allocated lessons (Appendix 6). However, where time was lost we decided to allocate our free time, such as lunch hours to keep to schedule.

2. ## Taking the BBC and at least one other foreign public broadcaster as your focus, ...

I will begin however, by discussing the notion of public service broadcasting in order that we better understand the core principles, of which we, the public are compulsory bound to fund. Section 2 * What is public service broadcasting? * What distinguishes it from profit-driven media?

• Over 160,000 pieces
of student written work
• Annotated by
experienced teachers
• Ideas and feedback to