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Amylase practical

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Introduction

Biology AT1 Aim: I aim to investigate how the rate of reaction is affected in the reaction between amylase and starch as the concentration of the amylase is changed. Introduction: Digestion is the breakdown of food into smaller molecules, small enough to cross the plasma membrane into the blood stream. Digestion is important because the food, as we eat it is not in a form that our body can use them for the nourishment that we need them for. The experiment involving amylase and starch is a mimic of what happens during digestion in the mouth. Starch is broken down in the mouth by the amylase present in the saliva, which is produced in the salivary glands. Starch is a long and complicated molecule, made up of smaller, soluble molecules of glucose. Starch is broken down into maltose first and then into glucose. The collision theory explains how and why the experiment works. For a chemical reaction to happen particles must collide with. For this to be done energy s needed. There is a minimum energy that is required for this to happen. We call this the Activation Energy Level. If the particles do not have the required energy to react then the particles will just bounce of each other and no reaction will occur. The energy is needed to break the old bonds. You can make a reaction happen, or speed up the rate of reaction. There are five main ways to increase the rate of a chemical reaction and they are all understood in the terms of the collision theory. ...read more.

Middle

This means that for every particle of amylase there are more molecules of starch to be broken down into glucose every time the amylase solution is diluted. I have explained thins in the diagrams below: From this prediction I can say that I think the results will be linear and the time will get faster the more concentration there is. After I have collated the results from this experiment I will also find out the rate of reaction, and be drawing a 1/t graph. I think the graph for the average time, and the graph for the rate of reaction will look like this. A graph showing the average time. A graph showing the rate of reaction. Rate of Rate of Reaction Reaction Concentration Concentration Fair Test: It is extremely important, as with every investigation that everything is kept fair. This means that all the things that could affect the outcome of the investigation if they were changed, needs to be kept the same and only the variable is to be altered. In this case the variable is the concentration of the amylase solution. The things that need to be kept constant are; the temperature, the volume of the two solutions, the way in which the amylase and starch are put into the third boiling tube and whether a boiling tube or test tube is used. Other things like making sure the boiling tubes are clean and they are not mixed up needs to be checked as this will make the test unfair and void. Apparatus: * Tripod, * Gauze, * 1 Glass Beaker, (250ml) ...read more.

Conclusion

The experiment with many trials and errors finally worked and we got our results. To ensure that we did get them all we had to work individually, so to get all the experiments, for at least one set of results in a lunchtime. Making our own water bath and keeping it constant was a difficult task at the beginning, as the temperature of our water bath, at the beginning kept either rising above, or falling below 40�C. This may have caused faults in our experiment but as the temperature of the water bath never reached over 60�C, where as we have seen in past experiments the enzyme denatures, we felt that it should have only affected our results and not the enzyme. This made us think that the amylase solution was not quite right when we were using it. Despite this, I fell that we worked well as a team, even under pressure and we followed all the safety requirements and made sure all the tests were as fair as we could make them. If I were to repeat this experiment there would be a few things that I would change. The water bath was one of our main fall downs and so next time I would either use a temperature probe to monitor the temperature, or use the water bath, which is maybe not as reliable as it sounds as I found out in previous experiments. I would make sure that I had enough time to do the whole experiment three times in one session, so that the amylase and starch is from the same batch and I would also do it in the afternoon when the amylase and starch had had time to settle. ?? ?? ?? ?? ...read more.

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