• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Geography vs. People

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Geography v. People Throughout the course of human history, some societies developed more advanced civilizations and were more successful than others. A challenging task for historians and other scientists alike is finding a valid reason or an examination for the uneven advancement of societies. Jared Diamond, a renowned professor at UCLA, after years of study and fieldwork has given the explanation that geography is the key to the success of civilizations. That is, the location of a society and the available resources to it determine its advancement or collapse. However, his conclusion is faulty and cannot explain such facts as Greek and Macedonian triumph over the powerful Persian Empire. Before the discussion of the alternative reasons for the success of some civilizations over others and the inconsistency of Diamond's position with the Greek and Macedonian victory over the vast Persian Empire, a brief introduction to Diamond's study is appropriate. According to the documentary "Guns, Germs, and Steel" by PBS, Jared Diamond started his research after a man in Papua New Guinea asked him: "Why do white men have so much cargo and we New Guineans have so little?" ...read more.

Middle

Basically, Diamond states that it is the geography of Mesopotamia that promoted the advancement of civilizations. Now, geography itself does not account for the advancement of societies. For example, if the success of a civilization is based on its geography, than how come the mighty Persian Empire with its plentiful resources that could support enormous armies was defeated multiple times by the small city states of Greece in the Mediterranean and later completely conquered by the Macedonians? In agreement with Jared Diamond's logic, the Persians should have been victorious by a landslide; after all, the great majority of the most productive lands in the ancient world were under their domain, there was no shortage of domesticated cattle in Persia, and Mesopotamia, identified by Diamond to have the resources for a civilization's success, was under Persian control. Consequently, Jared Diamond's argument has no merits because the Persians, who had more chances of being victorious than their opponents, were crushed. ...read more.

Conclusion

Moreover, all hoplite soldiers were armed with shields, held in such a position that protected the top and all of the four sides of the unit. The Hoplite Phalanx was improved with lighter armor and longer spears - some stretching up to 18 feet - by Alexander The Great of Macedonia, who is one of the best candidates in history for flawless leadership. After all, Alexander, with his loyal army, was the one who conquered Persia completely and even extended his empire all the way to India. If this is not a model for great leadership and success of a civilization, then what is? In brief, Jared Diamond's study and conclusion is unsound because geography is not the key to a nation's success, cleverness and ingenuity play a much more important role instead. In addition, if Diamond's reasoning was correct, then the societies with the greatest amount of land and resources would always be victorious. The examples of Greek and Macedonian victory over the Persian Empire are only a few of the numerous events that took place throughout history that prove diamond's argument to be faulty. ?? ?? ?? ?? Hovhannisyan 1 ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Miscellaneous section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Miscellaneous essays

  1. Media in society

    revision guides and assistance, subsequently, Eastenders would be an example of entertainment, a programme offering a wide and varied culture and human interest, open to a multitude of age groups, and the information gathering of BBC news, this offering world news twenty four hours of the day.

  2. An Examination of Southern Dialect

    different form of standard English in a different version of the Southern accent. Part of this linguistic diversity is reflected in the way that the Southern aristocracy can ?shift not only vocabulary and pronunciation, but even grammar, according to the audience? ((1)McDavid 219).

  1. When We Study History We Are Not Studying The Past But What Historians Have ...

    towards the factual basis of history and so could be said not to be as 'constructed' as the rationalist ideal. Nevertheless the fact that empiricism still requires a conclusion to be made shows that opinion inevitably intrudes making it still not a completely objective approach and so the study of it would still be considered historiography of sorts.

  2. A discussion of Betty Smith's 'A Tree Grows in Brooklyn'.

    Half the pennies are spent at the candy store and half are saved in the tin can bank nailed to the corner of the Nolan's closet, which will be used to buy land when fifty dollars are collected. Francie spends the rest of her time running errands for her mother,

  1. Leisure Studies- Unit 5- A02

    with at least one child that is under the age of 5 and doesn't yet attend school. It is likely that one of the parents will be at home looking after the child of children while the other is out working and earning money for the family.

  2. Leisure Studies- Unit 5- A03

    This scheme also allows the children's parents the chance to attend hourly sessions that talk about nutrition because it is the parents that give their children their breakfast, lunch and dinner so if they know what is healthy for their child and what isn't then they can give them what is right so can alter their child's unhealthy eating habits.

  1. Communication in todays society

    information so that it is easy for diverse audiences to understand and use. If a leader can't get a message across clearly and motivate others to act on it, then having a message doesn't even matter. This explained how much leadership relies on communication.

  2. the great girl deficit, in india

    Both figures help to illustrate the extent of the problem of girl deficit in India. Figure 1 is a map showing the estimated sex ratios for 1999 in the world whereas figure 2 concentrates on the regions in India. Both maps are essential in comparing figures in India in relation to the rest of the world.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work