• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Human Behaviour 1, Explain the various approaches to psychology and the people who pioneered them

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Task 1 - Explain the various approaches to psychology and the people who pioneered them Psychology is the scientific study of the mind and it's activities, both normal and abnormal. (Collins Dictionary) There are four main approaches to psychology. These are: 1. Behaviourist 2. Psychoanalytic 3. Humanistic 4. Cognitive The behaviourist approach This approach is said to have been started by Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936), J.B. Watson (1878-1958), and B.F. Skinner (1904-1990). This theory argues that all human behaviour is caused by something else. This means that 'behaviour is just a response to a stimulus'. They also believe that behaviour can be scientifically tested under reproduced conditions. This was the first ever serious attempt to make psychology into a proper science. Behaviourism does not concern the mind, consciousness or thoughts. It is only concerned with actions. Below are famous studies that impacted on the behaviourist approach and who pioneered them. Pavlov Pavlov discovered Classic conditioning. During his research he discovered that the presence of the lab technician that fed the dogs (he experimented on animals) that the dogs salivated more, even when the technician wasn't going to feed them. This lead to an experiment in which he rang a bell every time the dogs were fed, then eventually the dogs began to salivate more just at the bell being rung, despite their food not being present. ...read more.

Middle

> Castration Complex - Irrational fear of castration > Penis envy - The desire of young girls to be boys Freud believed all these existed in the under fives and that, in repressed form, they could cause mental problems later in life. Structure of the mind > Id - The sexual energy hidden in the unconscious mind > Ego - The self we know > Super ego - The conscience, guarding the ego from the Id Mental Illness Freud saw this as a power struggle between the three parts of the mind. The super ego tried to fight the Id in ways that were destructive to mental health, they included - > Repression - Pushing the desires forcibly back into the unconscious mind > Sublimation - Changing bad desires into something more socially acceptable > Fixation - Obsessively stuck at one of the stages of infantile sexual development. Analysis of the Psychoanalytic approach For > Freud stirred dup a-lot of interest in psychology. > Many of his theories are accepted, even though they are impossible to prove. > Psychologists started studying sex, instead of pretending it didn't exist > It had a huge effect on the Arts, the media (e.g. advertising) and also the way we think about other people. ...read more.

Conclusion

Police stations always make sure their working temperature is correct and comfortbale for their employees and visitng members of the public. Lighting the majority of a Police officers work takes place indoors, at their police station. Many hours will be spent using computers and looking at notes. This means that their employers must ensure that they are exposed to the correct lighting to prevent straining and damaging their eyes. Space lack of space can be a huge cause of stress if you feel you don't have enough privacy. Psychologists where employed to advise on a comfortable layout for police stations that would maximise efficiancy. Shift work sparks and Cooper (1999) discovered that the longer hours people work, they less effectice and use they become. Also the divorce rate was higher amongst night workers. Forthis reason, police duties are done in shifts, and nights are done in rotation so that everyone takes a turn, and does not work too many nights in a row. Army - Prospect of going to war The prospect of going to war is a major source of stress in the Army. Being away from their loved ones and familiar places can become a major anxiety even before they leave. The psychoanalytical appracoh is used to deal with type of worry. The soldiers are told to dicuss their problems and fears with eachother and not keep things hidden Lizzie Brownrigg Human Behaviour 1 ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Miscellaneous section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Miscellaneous essays

  1. Effective Practice in safeguarding Children within a Multidisciplinary Approach.

    Leaflets from the NSPCC can also be distributed to children and their families in order to help protect vulnerable children. It is good practice for practitioners to observe children in their care. This might bring out any concerns. In the setting that I work in, we carry out series of observations to monitor children's play and well-being.

  2. Customer experience management in UK higher education

    Also, methods such as user observation or innovation toolkits focus on the communication interface between suppliers and users. (Wellington 2000 18) CEM also makes reference to concepts such as user-friendliness (usability). CEM is scientifically treated especially in the context of business administration from the trading and sales psychology, as when

  1. Investigating The Use of Pectinase

    the rate of reaction at 60°C should be lower as most enzymes would have denatured at this temperature. Evaluation Overall, I believe that my investigation was a success. I also believe that the procedure that I used was easy to follow and regulated, so I do not believe that I

  2. BTEC Buisness Effective People Communication Pass 3

    Tele and computer conferencing provide interpersonal exchanges visually and via VDU screens). * Accuracy (Instant message reading and checking of electronic circuits operating between sending and receiving equipment during the transmission of high speed 'bits' of the message in packet switching of computer data ensure the message is accurately received in remote locations).

  1. SWOT analysis of Carden Park

    This will mean building work and areas out action for customers. This may put people off the hotel as they feel the need to use these areas also the noise and different distractions could have a negative effect on their experience during their time at Carden Park.

  2. EVERYTHING THAT IS LEGAL IS NOT NECESSARILY ETHICAL' CRITICALLY DISCUSS THIS STATEMENT,

    Children also have the right to be protected from harm, and legal checks are in place for this such as the Criminal Bureau Register (CRB) in order to gain access to schools and such likes which researchers should fulfil before carrying out research.

  1. Leisure Studies- Unit 5- A03

    Children and teenagers are the future of the world and it needs to be made clear that they need to be healthy because otherwise things will continue the way they are and get worse. The NHS is beginning to come under a lot more strain because the amount of obese

  2. Public Services: international institutions. Police officers should have a general understanding of the ...

    Development of peaceful and friendly international relations is a must for the members of NATO. NATO has the ability, if faced with a problem that needs military action, to take troops from any membersâ armies. The impact that NATO has on UK public services are political and military force, peace keeping, policing roles and security issues.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work