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Human Behaviour 1, Explain the various approaches to psychology and the people who pioneered them

Extracts from this essay...

Introduction

Task 1 - Explain the various approaches to psychology and the people who pioneered them Psychology is the scientific study of the mind and it's activities, both normal and abnormal. (Collins Dictionary) There are four main approaches to psychology. These are: 1. Behaviourist 2. Psychoanalytic 3. Humanistic 4. Cognitive The behaviourist approach This approach is said to have been started by Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936), J.B. Watson (1878-1958), and B.F. Skinner (1904-1990). This theory argues that all human behaviour is caused by something else. This means that 'behaviour is just a response to a stimulus'. They also believe that behaviour can be scientifically tested under reproduced conditions. This was the first ever serious attempt to make psychology into a proper science. Behaviourism does not concern the mind, consciousness or thoughts. It is only concerned with actions. Below are famous studies that impacted on the behaviourist approach and who pioneered them. Pavlov Pavlov discovered Classic conditioning. During his research he discovered that the presence of the lab technician that fed the dogs (he experimented on animals) that the dogs salivated more, even when the technician wasn't going to feed them. This lead to an experiment in which he rang a bell every time the dogs were fed, then eventually the dogs began to salivate more just at the bell being rung, despite their food not being present.

Middle

> Castration Complex - Irrational fear of castration > Penis envy - The desire of young girls to be boys Freud believed all these existed in the under fives and that, in repressed form, they could cause mental problems later in life. Structure of the mind > Id - The sexual energy hidden in the unconscious mind > Ego - The self we know > Super ego - The conscience, guarding the ego from the Id Mental Illness Freud saw this as a power struggle between the three parts of the mind. The super ego tried to fight the Id in ways that were destructive to mental health, they included - > Repression - Pushing the desires forcibly back into the unconscious mind > Sublimation - Changing bad desires into something more socially acceptable > Fixation - Obsessively stuck at one of the stages of infantile sexual development. Analysis of the Psychoanalytic approach For > Freud stirred dup a-lot of interest in psychology. > Many of his theories are accepted, even though they are impossible to prove. > Psychologists started studying sex, instead of pretending it didn't exist > It had a huge effect on the Arts, the media (e.g. advertising) and also the way we think about other people.

Conclusion

Police stations always make sure their working temperature is correct and comfortbale for their employees and visitng members of the public. Lighting the majority of a Police officers work takes place indoors, at their police station. Many hours will be spent using computers and looking at notes. This means that their employers must ensure that they are exposed to the correct lighting to prevent straining and damaging their eyes. Space lack of space can be a huge cause of stress if you feel you don't have enough privacy. Psychologists where employed to advise on a comfortable layout for police stations that would maximise efficiancy. Shift work sparks and Cooper (1999) discovered that the longer hours people work, they less effectice and use they become. Also the divorce rate was higher amongst night workers. Forthis reason, police duties are done in shifts, and nights are done in rotation so that everyone takes a turn, and does not work too many nights in a row. Army - Prospect of going to war The prospect of going to war is a major source of stress in the Army. Being away from their loved ones and familiar places can become a major anxiety even before they leave. The psychoanalytical appracoh is used to deal with type of worry. The soldiers are told to dicuss their problems and fears with eachother and not keep things hidden Lizzie Brownrigg Human Behaviour 1

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