• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month
Page
  1. 1
    1
  2. 2
    2
  3. 3
    3
  4. 4
    4
  5. 5
    5
  6. 6
    6
  7. 7
    7
  8. 8
    8
  9. 9
    9
  10. 10
    10
  11. 11
    11
  12. 12
    12
  13. 13
    13
  14. 14
    14
  15. 15
    15

Investigating The Use of Pectinase

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Investigating the use of pectinase in the Production of fruit juice. Introduction/Background Information Enzymes are proteins, which act as the acceleration devices of biochemistry. This means that they are used to catalyze (speed up) reactions. Enzymes are specifically designed for a target substrate, according to their size, shape and chemical charges that precisely bond to its substrate molecule. The section of the enzyme that binds to the substrate is called the active site and an advantage of enzymes being so specific is that they will not interact with or disturb other components present during the reaction. The diagram shows the reaction between pectinase and pectin and also how they are specific to each other. The enzyme that I will be using during my investigation is pectinase, which is the specific enzyme used in the breakdown of pectin, a polysaccharide substrate found in the cell walls of many plants. In plants the pectin naturally functions as a glue to hold the cell wall together. Pectins are large polysaccharide molecules, similar to starch except that the repeating unit (residue) of pectin is galacturonic acid instead of the glucose in starch. Moreover, pectins are made up mostly of chains of several hundred galacturonic acid residues. This causes fruit cell walls to have a complex structure of interwoven polymers, which no single enzyme can fully break down. The complete breakdown of a cell wall would most likely need a complex cocktail of carbohydrase enzymes. Commercial pectinase is usually a mixture of enzymes such as polygalacturonases and pectin lyases. Furthermore, pectins are known to be very good at binding water, so, for example in jam or jelly, pectin is what makes it set. In the structure of the cell, the middle lamella, the part between neighbouring cells is rich in pectin, this means that pectin also helps to glue cells together. Pectinases are obtained commercially from fungi, particularly Aspergillus. ...read more.

Middle

100% pectinase - 2cm3 pectinase and 0cm3 water 2. 75% pectinase/25% water - 1.5cm3 pectinase and 0.5cm3 water 3. 50% pectinase/50% water - 1cm3 pectinase and 1cm3 water 4. 25%pectinase/75% pectinase - 0.5cm3 pectinase and 1.5cm3 water At each concentration, I will measure the length of time taken for the amount of juice produced to reach 1cm3, 2cm3, 3cm3 4cm3 and 5cm3. Therefore my pilot test will also help me to decide how long to run my experiment for. Prediction I believe that the lower the concentration, the longer it will take to reach each volume. This is because a lower concentration will lead to less substrate being available to be catalyzed by the enzyme pectinase and therefore a much slower rate of reaction. Method * First of all, I will begin by labelling my beakers containing pectinase and distilled water and from these I will measure out the concentration of pectinase e.g. 75% pectinase/25% water (1.5cm3 and 0.5cm3 respectively) using a syringe. * I will then measure out 20g of apple pulp in another beaker and reset the stop clock. Then I will set up the apparatus consisting of the funnel containing a piece of filter paper in the measuring cylinder as shown in the diagram. * To start the experiment I will add the pectinase and distilled water to the apple pulp and begin the stop clock. * I will wait for 5 minutes for the enzyme to act and also stir the solution with a glass rod at one-minute intervals for 10 seconds. * After the 5-minute activity stage, I will stop the clock, pour the mixture into the filter funnel and restart the clock. * During this period of time I will continue to observe the volume of juice produced in the measuring cylinder and when it has reached the target volumes of 1cm3, 2cm3, 3cm3, 4cm3 and 5cm3, I will record the time on the stop clock. ...read more.

Conclusion

Even though the experiment at 70�C produced no juice, I believe that it was fine as the temperature was far too high in order for pectinase to act. If I were to do this experiment again, I think I could have repeated the pilot test at least twice to obtain more accurate and consistent results. I also could be more precise when measuring out the volume of the pectinase and buffer solution with the syringe, taking more care to look at the lower meniscus and doing the same when noting down the result from the measuring cylinder. In addition, during this experiment I could have added a control, which would have been another experiment where only distilled water would have been added to the apple instead of pectinase and buffer solution. This would have helped me to understand and make sure that the juice produced during the experiment was a result of enzyme activity rather than just the liquid material being filtered through. Lastly, I could have tried to use a buffer solution of pH5.5 as this is the optimum pH for pectinase instead of pH6, because of this, the pH of the enzyme could have an affecting factor towards my results. However, this material was not available to me at the time. In order to make my experiment more detailed when investigating pectinase, I could have had a wider range of temperatures, for example from 10�C to 70�C or even had a greater number of temperatures to investigate, such as doing an experiment at 5 degree intervals instead of 10 (25�C, 30�C, 35�C, 40�C, etc...). Furthermore, if I were to extend my experiment, I could even investigate other fruits, such as pears, to see if pectinase works in the same way. Other experiments that I could have carried out would include studying the concentration of pectinase or even a different enzyme altogether. ?? ?? ?? ?? ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Miscellaneous section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Miscellaneous essays

  1. Customer experience management in UK higher education

    (Pranter 2001 43) So satisfaction is an ongoing assessment of company's ability to actually deliver the benefits that the customer is looking for. (Zeithaml 2000 12) The most accepted concept of satisfaction can be described, encompasses three main aspects: (Humphrey 2003 29)

  2. Problem Solution: Foundation Schools

    Nancy Anderson is aware of the conflict she is having with her role as project manager and her desire to see the school succeed. Since she is hesitant in her role, she should seek to find a person who can fill her role as a project manager and maintain the

  1. Miller sets out in The Crucible to create a totally unsympathetic character in Abigail. ...

    Evil -sent people to deaths. No remorse-compare to Iago -wants to achieve goal of getting John Procter-humanity-love? Obsession? "Promise" quote -revenge, salem witch trials, when threatened, she attacks ruthlessly. Quote about goody Procter -affair with john procter, however only an impressionable teenager, with no real role model, how much can she be held responsible?

  2. The Diversity of the Leisure Industry

    In the UK, the events are Guy Fawkes Night, Christmas, New Years, Halloween, St. George's Day, St. David's Day and various music festivals, such as Glastonbury. There is also a difference in leisure spending between the countries. Russia: Item Price public toilet fee Russian Ruble 14.00 letter posted international Russian

  1. Planning, Design and Production Phases of the Construction Industry

    has to be finalised with this being the last opportunity for any alterations to the brief. The actual costs have to be applied in relation to the work and all components of the building need to be fully designed and agreed collectively, For example the design team as mentioned above

  2. Production Process

    You will oversee that the Lighting and Sound team meet your design style. You will also ensure all the stuff obtained by the stage manager fits your design style. You will appoint and manage an art department, which includes a design and construction team.

  1. Children are active in constructing their own learning.

    who had witnessed the adult being rewarded behaved more aggressively towards the doll than those who had seen the adult getting punished. He concluded that the children had learned their behaviour through observation alone but does go on to suggest that children are more likely to copy behaviours of children of similar ages and gender.

  2. Personal statement - chemical engineering

    and harnessed to help supply our energy needs whilst combating global warming in a sustainable cost-effective manor. Also in my spare time I have read several chemical engineering based books to gain a better understanding of the field such as "Beyond the chemical frontier: Challenges for chemistry and chemical engineering".

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work