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Chant To Zappa Music through the Ages

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Introduction

Umaar Mirza 5/1/2007 Chant To Zappa Music through the Ages Midterm I. 1. Monophonic a. Having a single melodic line, short and accompanied. b. In the piece Alleluia: Vidimus Stellam, monophony is constant throughout, but alternates between a soloist and a choir singing in unison. 2. Polyphonic a. Having two melodic lines together b. Polyphonic compositions include Johann Sebastian Bach's Organ Fugue in G Minor and Guillaume de Machaut's Notre Dame Mass, which is recognized as the first polyphonic treatment of the mass ordinary (or sung prayers that stay the same throughout the church year, including the Kyrie, Gloria, Credo, Sanctus, and Agnus Dei) by a known composer. 3. motet a. A polyphonic composition based on a sacred text and usually sung without accompaniment b. Josquin Desprez had Ave Maria...Virgo Serena 4. Gregorian chant a. A short and simple melody, divided into two parts by double bars, to which unmetrical psalms, etc., are sung or recited. It is the most ancient form of choral music. b. Most of the composers of the Gregorian Chant between 600-1300 are unknown except for Hilegard of Bingen Alleluia: Vidimus Stellam (We Have Seen His Star 5. church modes a. Scales that contain seven tones with an eight tone duplicating the first an octave higher, but with patterns of whole and half steps idifferent major and minor scales; used in medieval, Renaissance, and twentieth-century music and in folk music. ...read more.

Middle

He wrote Ricecare in XII tono 4. Thomas Weelkes Thomas Weelkes, whose professional career spanned one of the most fertile periods in England's musical history, is without doubt one of her finest composers. Like Purcell, he had a vivid imagination and love of experiment, and died prematurely at the peak of his creative powers, but not before he had composed a very large amount of music. Nowhere are Weelkes' outstanding musical abilities more evident than in his four sets of madrigals, which appeared between 1597 and 1608, and his splendidly sonorous full anthems. The English madrigal school reached its peak with Weelkes, the most original madrigalist, and John Wilbye, the most polished; both were deeply indebted to Thomas Morley, both surpassed him. 5. Antonio Vivaldi He was the son of a professional violinist who played at St. Mark's and may have been involved in operatic management. Vivaldi was trained for the priesthood and ordained in 1703 but soon after his ordination ceased to say Mass. he claimed this was because of his unsure health (he is known to have suffered from chest complaints, possibly asthma or angina). In 1703 he was appointed maestro di violino at the Ospedale della Piet�, one of the Venetian girls' orphanages; he remained there until 1709, and held the post again, 1711-16; he then became maestro de' concerti. Later, when he was away from Venice, he retained his connection with the Piet� (at one period he sent two concertos by post each month). ...read more.

Conclusion

Baroque music can be separated into three periods: early, middle, and late. Each has its own distinctive characteristics - for example, early baroque composers used homophonic texture extensively, however, by the late baroque period, polyphony texture came back into use. The music we consider "baroque" is mostly from the later phase, and is known mainly because of two composers - George Frideric Handel, and Johann Sebastian Bach. Baroque instrumental music usually expresses one mood throughout an entire piece, and features continuity in rhythm and melody, as well as extreme shifts in dynamics (known as terraced dynamics), if any at all. Composers employed a wide range of chords and a harmonic form known as basso continuo, or accompaniment by bass instruments. Music in this era was written largely for the aristocracy, who had such control over their composers that one could be thrown in prison if a composition didn't please his master. Musical forms used in the baroque era included the concerto grosso and ritornello form, operas, cantatas, suites, fugues, and oratorios. Besides Bach and Handel, its most talented composers included Claudio Monteverdi, Henry Purcell, and Antonio Vivaldi. Baroque music, especially fugues written by Bach, are known for its extensive use of counterpoint, or a separate melody acting as a harmony. Operas also became incredibly popular, and the style's followers - the rich and powerful - reflected the social conditions of the time in which the aristocracy exercised a large amount of force over their citizens. ...read more.

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