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How did jazz influence mainstream music in Europe in the 20s and 30s? Refer in detail to specific pieces of music by at least 2 composers.

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Introduction

How did jazz influence mainstream music in Europe in the 20s and 30s? Refer in detail to specific pieces of music by at least 2 composers. Jazz first emerged in New Orleans, America in the early 1900s as a style called 'Dixieland', commonly played by 5 piece ensembles. By the 1920s the popularity of jazz was beginning to grow rapidly, and the centre of the jazz scene moved to Chicago, and the size of ensembles began to grow to 7 members and more. The music had become so established by this point that it began spreading to other parts of the world, including Europe, where it had a significant influence on much mainstream music. Jazz earned the respect of renowned European composers, such as Maurice Ravel, Darius Milhaud and Igor Stravinsky, who began incorporating jazz elements into their orchestral concert works. Paris was one of the most responsive European cities to jazz, and rapidly developed its own scene, possibly because of the link between its cabaret culture with jazz night life as it developed in America in the 1910s and 20s. Before the 1920s, ragtime began to flourish in Europe after its establishment in the United States, and it was welcomed in the continent as the first musical genre distinctive to America. ...read more.

Middle

Trombonist Lew Davis took up his instrument when he first heard the O.D.J.B, and subsequently formed a quartet called 'The Lyricals'. He was significant in spreading the influence of jazz on mainstream European music, and took European jazz groups on tour to Scandinavia and Belgium as early as 1921. The 'Quinquaginta Ramblers' were one of the first native British Jazz bands, formed in 1926 by pianist Fred Elizade. By 1927 Elizade was leading a British/American band at the Savoy Hotel in London, and his music became a popular form of entertainment for Europeans. Jazz achieved great mainstream success in Germany, as well as England. Both American and native jazz groups toured the country, and many German concert musicians were influence by the trend. Alan Berg, one of the finest concert composers of the 20th century called for an offstage jazz band for his opera 'Lulu'. A successful German jazz band were the 'Weintraub Syncopaters' led by Stefan Weintraub. They recorded popular tunes such as 'Up and at 'Em' and 'Jackass Blues', and appeared in the 1930s film 'The Blue Angel', further illustrating the influence of jazz on European popular culture. Jazz in Germany was compromised however by the rise of Hitler's leadership in 1933. ...read more.

Conclusion

The effect of the stop time in the second strain of the O.D.J.B. recording is heard in this version; although the bass continues to walk, the ensemble strongly accents the measure's downbeats. In the third strain, Grappelli's melodic line contains the piece's first blue notes, and there are instrumental breaks for both Reinhardt and the bassist; other typical jazz features which have been adopted by European musicians. Reinhardt's solo in the fourth strain provide bluesy bent and held notes which create effective contrast with the energetic virtuosity of the previous strain, and again provide evidence of jazz and blues traditions merging wit European styles. The success of ragtime in the United States, and the fact that it was the only early jazz form written down, meant that it was the first form of jazz to reach Europe and have significant impact on composers there. Dixieland also went on to have a considerable effect on European music, and jazz quickly gained respect in the continent, influencing the work of established concert composers. American musicians also began touring Europe and spreading the impact of jazz. Paris was one of the most receptive cities to the style, and bands would model themselves on the Original Dixieland Jazz Band; the first group to make a jazz recording, and cover their songs such as 'Tiger Rag', recorded by both the O.D.J.B, and Parisian band 'Quintet du Hot Club de France'. ...read more.

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