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AS and A Level: Acquiring, Developing & Performance Skill
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Writing about ‘Arousal’ in sport
- 1 Definitions of arousal may vary, but whichever one you use, you must acknowledge the author and the date it was established. This practice is essential and normal for study in higher education.
- 2 Arousal is necessary and ideally is ‘managed’ to maintain ‘optimal’ levels. This means that you are ‘excited’ both cognitively and physiologically enough to be ‘ready’ to perform, but are not overly aroused so much that your performance will deteriorate as a result.
- 3 Many questions or assignments will expect you to analyse the 3 key theories of arousal : Drive, Inverted U and Catastrophe Theory. Analysis requires you to present both the credible or advantageous side to the theory AND the less constructive or valuable perspective (ie the good and bad points about it as a theory to explain something).
- 4 Theories are JUST that – They are someone’s interpretation or reasoning for something. They will present evidence to support their theory, however, it is possible that another person will disagree and will present a different theory as explanation. When writing ‘critically’ you should be open to exploring, considering and explaining BOTH perspectives.
Drive Theory (Hull, 1951) is the most simplistic and suggested that the more aroused you are, the more likely the dominant response will be performed (this doesn’t matter whether it’s the correct skill or not!)
The Inverted U hypothesis (Hebb 1957); suggests that performance will increase up til the optimal level of arousal and above that, will ‘gradually’ descrease.
Catastrophe theory (Fazey and Hardy 1988) develops this, but suggests that arousal above optimal levels will ‘catastrophically’ drop, but can be increased again if cognitive arousal is reduced and controlled.
How to interpret an assignment task or essay title
- 1 Understand the question fully BEFORE you write - whichever module topic it is from, the process of preparing and constructing the answer will be similar. It is good practice to interpret the title or question before you think about the answer or writing. Too often, students begin writing and just follow their stream of thought thereafter. This can lead to inconsistencies and disjointed arguments.
- 2 • Question analysis – what is the command verb being used. This is the verb that indicates what you have to do to the topic.
- 3 Question analysis – Analyse, discuss and evaluate are sometimes prefixed with ‘critically’ – these all require you to consider 2 sides or different perspectives on a topic, with your thoughts and conclusions.
- 4 Question analysis – Describe, outline and state are more simplistic and require statements about something. Explain takes this further and requires detail as to WHY you state something; a degree of reasoning.
- 5 • Sections of a question – Questions can sometimes require you to respond to more than one command verb and therefore write more than one section as an answer.
Technology in sport
- 1 Terminology – Use the appropriate jargon for equipment and facilities (eg: hypoxic or hypobaric chambers for simulated altitude training). This shows a higher level of research and knowledge.
- 2 Technology for safety –Many technological developments have intended to ensure the safety of participants and spectators. Sadly, many developments evolve as a result of a tragedy or where there have been problems (eg: a cord attaching runners on a treadmill to cut out the motor if they fall)
- 3 Technology for comfort – People of all levels of performance (from recreational to elite) appreciate and will buy equipment and clothing that allows them to train and compete in great comfort.
- 4 Technology for performance – There are so many examples of developments that increase an athlete’s performance. These include footwear suitable to different playing surfaces or SZR racing swim suit to reduce friction.
- 5 The technological debate – in any ‘critical’ task it should not be assumed that advances in technology are advantageous or appropriate. A higher level student will present arguments that both support and challenge the inclusion of technology in sport.
- Marked by Teachers essays 2
However, it can be argued that these cameras shouldn't be used as they can be dangerous; in the 2004 Olympics, Sarah Price badly hurt her leg due to getting it caught on an underwater camera during warm up. Furthermore, there are also issues with grants given. Many small swimming clubs would be unable to afford to buy the underwater cameras, because they are very expensive - this would mean more government money has to go into buying this equipment. Many people argue that this money could go to better use.
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For example, the arousal levels in a Rugby team training session are likely to be higher because it requires persistence and perseverance. A training session is a low cognitive task, therefore arousal levels are going to be higher, and are likely to be more beneficial to long term performance. Performers become more intrinsically motivated and self-directed, as at training they are much more eager to learn and improve. Whereas, a Golfer (putting) which is a high cognitive task, is likely to initiate lower arousal levels - where concentration is at its highest and decision making is essential; so, as a
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He also connects with the ball when it is at the top of the bounce, this then allows the ball to come from a high position therefore allows the ball to consistently make the way of the net. During the execution phase the bat has to be brought from a high position therefore allows the ball to consistently make the way of the net. During the execution phase the bat has to be brought from a low position to a high position so the wrist goes through a stage of adduction, in order to fetch the arm up.
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Execution: As he attempts the shot, his head is over the ball and he is not leaning back. He makes full contact with the middle of the ball with the top of his foot, while the foot is plantar-flexed, with sufficient power and accuracy to ensure that the shot is on target. He also seems to follow the shot through until his kicking leg has extended fully at the knee. Results: The resultant shot is on target. On average, he has 7 out of 9 shots on target and scores a goal every 2 games.
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He should do at least 2 minutes work on each of them. Maybe if he is starting to get familiar and comfortable with this he could do this for a longer period of time. Week 2 In the second week the striker will practice his heading by firstly heading the ball into an open goal which will be thrown at him. If headed properly he should be attacking the ball with his head which involves power and thrust mostly in his neck as he is moving his head forward to attack the ball.
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Group dynamic. It is important that all team members including coaches and supporters work together and interact in order to achieve their goals.
Some factors that affect team cohesion are:- how the members feel about the whole group reasons for being in the team i.e. money, social life, wanting to win the support the team has- good support helps cohesion leadership - a good leader will improve team cohesion sense of identity - wearing a team kit helps with sense of identity and cohesion friendship -
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* Shooting is key in Futsal as it kicking the ball to score in the opposing team's goal. This is done by the player using a lot of power most times to take a shot at the opponent's goal. * Creating space is essential in Futsal because when players create space away from where the ball is currently place there is a more likely chance you will get it and have a chance in taking the ball further down the court. * Passing in basketball is when you have the ball and pass it to one of the players on your team.
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Fitness Testing and Programming. When comparing and contrasting the fitness requirements for Track Athletics (Long Distance), Tennis and Football, there are many that are used in all three sports.
An additional explanation to explain the importance of aerobic durance to tennis is the size of the court. Due to this, the players have to make short sharp sprints while still in control of their body's momentum and position. To do this requires an extremely efficient aerobic system where the heart will pump the required blood oxygen and nutrients to sustain the energy that's needed to perform. Aerobic Endurance is also a specialist fitness requirement needed to play football. The main reason for this being, taking part in football requires a player to walk, jog, run and sprint, constantly with a minimal amount of rest for a whole 90 minutes.
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If this situation arises then the performer should either re-gather the ball quickly and effectively to obtain possession or if a ruck has already been formed re-aline in attack shouting orders to his team mates as where and when he wants them to run effective and dynamic lines to punish his defence. An example of a player who does this is Newzeland's Dan Carter; he can cut deference's apart with his fast hands and great decision making under great amounts of pressure.
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It could also include the use of a whistle to communicate with the individuals. For example the way you are standing, a certain face you make or if you do something with your hands this should show what you want to say with out you saying it.
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For example, running with the ball (sprinting), passing and finding space (jogging), ball goes out of play and returning to position (walking). I could improve my Fartlek training by increasing jogging and sprinting times and walking faster. I could also add more hills and different types of terrain into my routine. By doing these I will be working harder improving cardiovascular fitness. Continuous Training Continuous training is an essential training method for any performer that has to perform over long periods of time during games.
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Summary This is an all-round well balanced, adaptable formation with good width. There are many supporting options but the players (especially midfielders) would have to be able to work hard and have good stamina to maintain a good level of play. How my team uses this formation When my team uses this formation we use short quick passing around the defence and midfield as there is plenty of support in these areas. When the forwards have the ball one of our central midfielders will go up to support along with the wingers and the other central midfielders will stay back in case we lose the ball and need support at the back.
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He then gets into the tackling position; keeping his back straight and his head to the side of the ball carriers body. When executing the tackle he shrugs his shoulders on contact and simultaneously drives his shoulders upwards into the lower ribs, at the same time he wraps his arms around the ball carrier's thighs and hold tight. From this position it is possible for Noon to either drive the player backwards or turn him sideways in the tackle, depending on which will gain his team the greatest advantage.
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Being able to arrange matches, tournaments maybe even trips away. Knowing how to treat individuals maybe there's a 'Messer' on the team showing the discipline and patience to control him and discipline him if necessary, this is important because if you let that one player mess around the rest of the team will think they can. Friend: A manager will have to have a good relationship with his players if he wants to be successful in developing his players. A good relationship with all the players will create a better team atmosphere and spirit.
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There are two types of barriers, the long barrier and the short barrier. The long barrier is performed by getting into the line of the ball and bending down sideways down so the knee and ankle are together and in a straight line together, acting as a barrier as you hands gather the ball. Your body acts the barrier hence the name. The short barrier is performed by squatting down with both feet together in a 'v' position. The basic technique to dive, to prevent runs is to, follow the ball and begin to hunch , and as you get low , just push forward onto your stomach with your arms in front of you with your legs flexed.
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He is also using perceptual skill by being aware of his surroundings e.g the positioning of the goalkeeper is he of his line? Too far to the left or the right?, the best place to place the ball, is the ball set up for a shot, will the shot be blocked?. In this picture kaka is also using motor skills ,he is running and about to strike the ball he is controlling his muscles in a coordinated way to continue running and strike the ball in the same stride pattern Cognitive Skills: Skill which involves the mental/intellectual ability of the performer e.g what tactics do you use?
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Motivation plays a key role in the learning of skills, because the performer has set himself/herself goals to achieve and that is his/her motivation to succeed. Motivation is also a key essential in a learners preference and selection of activities.
According to the Drive Theory (Clark Hull 1943) if an athlete is appropriately skilled then it will help them to perform well if their drive to compete is aroused - they are "psyched up". www.brianmac.com Drive Theory It was believed that if you are asked to do something in front of a crowd that you would do it worse than you would on your own To help solve this problem, Robert Zajonc put forward Drive Theory where he used the term dominant response to refer to the behaviour we are most likely to perform in a given situation.
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Different Types of Learning. Everyone has there own way of learning people might have the same way of learning but some might learn skills quicker than others, some people might learn the skill verbally when it is explained to them and they pick it up rig
Here are a few definitions of learning: B.Knapp defines learning as "the more or less permanent change in behaviour that is reflected in a change in performance" Mike Mines defines learning as " an observable and measurable change in behaviour that is the result of an experience" As a co. P.E coach of a year 9 class I like to assess weather or not the skills that we have worked on have been learned and improved by the performers, there are a few ways of finding out if they have been learned or not.
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In addition to this a candidate must fall within specific body fat standards. The following targets and pass rates are based on the scenario that the participant is male. During the sit-up test one must perform full sit ups, with a spotter holding down the feet of the performer. The pass rate is fifty-four sit-ups in two minutes. Having a strong core and mid-section and carrying strength in the abdominal muscles and lower back muscles is integral for lifting heavy equipment. This is especially so for Royal Engineers who require exceptional all-round strength and stamina.
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Therefore a tennis doubles pair will be more likely to be closer to their potential productivity than a large team such as a full rugby squad. This is because the larger amount of people there are, the more communication is needed between the individuals. The research into this study was based on tug of war; a group of people were tested individually for their "pulling ability", then all theses scores were added together. So with the entire group pulling the rope at the same time one might think that they would achieve the same results as the collective individual performances,
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Eyesenck developed a diagram (figure 1) that showed introvert, extrovert, neurotic and stable characteristics. According to the diagram, an individual can, for example, be classed as a "stable extrovert", i.e. consistently behaving in a loud manner. Cattell developed a similar personality inventory to predict behaviour; it showed 16 source characteristics and the secondary characteristics of extroversion, independence, toughness and anxiety. The problem with personality profiles is that they are poor at predicting behaviour: * The results of questionnaires can be unreliable and inconsistent, often producing varying results for the same individual using the test at different times.
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First I'm going to describe the definitions of the sections the development continuum triangle. Foundation is the early development of sporting components and skills upon which all later forms of sports developments are based, e.g. throwing, catching, hand eye coordination. This typically refers to school sport.
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Long balls can also be easily deflected and cleared. A long ball is played forward to the striker which misses out the opposing teams forwards and midfield. Long passes are also harder to hit with precision so unless you base your strategy on counter attacks or unless you have full confidence in your strikers' ability to control long balls, you should base your soccer passing strategy on short, direct passes. COUNTER ATTACK PASS - describe the tactic The aim of this type of football is to catch the opponent on the "break".
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However to be training for months or even up to a year are mesocycles. Some people though opt for a macrocycle which can last between 1 to 4 years. Short term goals suit microcycles, medium term goals suit mesocycles and long term are for macrocycles. Week 1 Monday First of all you need to test and analyse your speed with a recognised test like a 50m sprint. Do this three times and then record your best time. Make sure you stretch all your muscles and especially in your legs before and after. Take the rest of the day off and prepare for a hard day tomorrow!
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In sport, type A individuals are more likely than type B people to continue participating in a sporting setting when the situation becomes unfavorable or when they are not particularly motivated to take part. Personality theories There are different types of personality theories they are: Trait, social learning, situational approach and interactional approach. Trait theory - This personality is based on the assumption that a person's personality can be captured in a series of different oppositions. A trait is what we also call a characteristic way in which an individual perceives feels, believes, or acts.
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