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Advanced Coaching Theory

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Sports' coaching is a very complex and complicated process. It is a process that requires input from a wide variety of specialist sub disciplines within the area. The management and the uniting of these specialist areas into a strategy to improve sporting performance is the major role of the coach (Lyle, 1999). Woodman (1993) expressed this ability of the coach as a form of 'art' and suggests that the better a coaches understanding of the sciences surrounding the coaching process the more effective a coach will be in the art of coaching. Coaching is an emerging profession and the sports coach has an increasing number of responsibilities. The process is underpinned by values and ideologies proposed by such foundations as the National Coaching Foundation (NCF) (1996) who provide a framework of rules for coach behaviour. The NCF (1996) highlight creating a positive experience and minimising any risk to athletes as vital roles of the sports coach. These values are related more towards the role of participation coach's whose initial principle is the athlete's enjoyment of the sport leading to the continuation of participation. The emphasis is on the learning of skills and not competition success. ...read more.


The arrows connecting the steps of the model illustrate the systematic order of the model's steps, and through reassessment and revision of the plan, show the continually evolving nature of the process. The first step of the model is data collection. Here the purpose is to assemble necessary information about the participant's performance. The first step is theoretically the most important because of the model being systematic and so the subsequent steps are built from it. Data may be subjective in that it is provided by the competitor or objective in that it is observed by the coach. The second step is called the diagnosis. Here the coach analyses the data provided by the first phase of the model. Through this assessment of relevant information the coach can identify if the competitor has any needs or problems. The plan of action is the third step and this comprises of the coach prescribing an action that will correct any problem identified in the previous phase. Goal setting is declared useful in this step and evaluation of the coaching help given is possible through the realisation or incompletion of these goals and general observation of the performers play. ...read more.


(1995) made further developments in the modelling of the coaching process by adding a group of central components, including competition, training and organisation. However, whilst Fairs (1987) outlined the connection between stages as systematic and continuous, C�t� et al. (1995) fail to describe the relationship between its separate constructs limiting its predictive aptitude. In conclusion, Fairs (1987) coaching process model is a suitable model for what it aimed to achieve. The intention of the model for coaching was to aid the coach in his role to identify and solve the problems of an athlete whilst creating a scientific foundation to support the profession and future research. The model was successful in the creation of a guideline for the education of coaches in the 'art' of solving the problems of athletes. This was achieved with five simple, easy to understand steps. Future models managed to build on Fairs' (1987) framework and improved on the models limitations by including contextual factors and realising the importance of long term goals in the coaching process. Fairs (1987) hoped to assist "a struggling profession" (p. 19) with his model and since its development and the emergence of further models, coaching has become increasingly professional and undergone massive change in the past decade (Beringen, 2003). ...read more.

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