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Anatomy and physiology for sport and exercise

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´╗┐UNIT 1: Anatomy and Physiology for Sport and Exercise finished Skeleton bones A skeleton is a strong framework of about 206 bones that protects the body's organs, supports the body, and provides attachment points for muscles to enable body movements. The skeletal system is a living, dynamic system, with networks of infiltrating blood vessels. Living mature bone is about 60% calcium compounds and about 40% collagen. Hence, bone is strong, hard and slightly elastic. All humans were born with over 300 bones but some bones, such as those in the skull and lower spine, fuse during growth, thereby reducing the number. Although mature bones consist largely of calcium, most bones in the skeleton of vertebrates, including humans, began as cartilage. Collagen- is a protein found abundantly throughout the bodies of animals, including humans. In fact, collagen makes up about one-third of the total body weight. Collagen is an important component of the body's connective tissues, which perform a variety of functions in the body Vertebrates They all have an internal skeleton of bone and/or cartilage, which includes a bony cranium surrounding the brain and a bony vertebral column enclosing the spinal cord The Axial and Appendicular Skeleton Skull Bones | Skull Anatomy The human skull (cranium) it is made out of 22 bones. The skull ( cranium) you can brake it down into two regions, the cranial section and the facial section. ...read more.


1. Synovial joints 1. Most of your joints are 'synovial joints'. They are movable joints containing a lubricating liquid called synovial fluid. Synovial joints are predominant in your limbs where mobility is important. Ligaments help provide their stability and muscles contract to produce movement. The most common synovial joints are listed below: 2. Ball and socket joints, like your hip and shoulder joints, are the most mobile type of joint in the human body. They allow you to swing your arms and legs in many different directions. 1. Ellipsoidal joints, such as the joint at the base of your index finger, allow bending and extending, rocking from side to side, but rotation is limited. 2. Gliding joints occur between the surfaces of two flat bones that are held together by ligaments. Some of the bones in your wrists and ankles move by gliding against each other. 1. Hinge joints, like in your knee and elbow, enable movement similar to the opening and closing of a hinged door. 2. The pivot joint in your neck allows you to turn your head from side to side. 3. The only saddle joints in your body are in your thumbs. The bones in a saddle joint can rock back and forth and from side to side, but they have limited rotation. 1. Flexibility: Joints enable your body to move 2. ...read more.


Your 7 cervical vertebrae support your head and neck and allow you to nod and shake your head 2. Your ribs attach to your 12 thoracic vertebrae 3. Your five sturdy lumbar vertebrae carry most of the weight of your upper body and provide a stable centre of gravity when you move 4. Your sacrum is made up of five fused vertebrae. It makes up the back wall of your pelvis 5. Your coccyx is made up of four fused vertebrae. It is an evolutionary remnant of the tail found in most other vertebrates S-shaped spine: Prevents shock to your head when you walk or run Spinal cord protection: Your bony spine encases your delicate spinal cord Vertebrae: 33 vertebrae make up your spine Ossification: The Rib Cage The Right Rib Cage There are 12 ribs on each side of the body. Ribs are flat bones. They are numbered one through twelve from top to bottom. Each rib connects to a thorasic vertebra. The top seven are true ribs, which connect directly to coastal cartlilage and the sternum. The remaining 5 ribs are false ribs. Three of them connect to costal cartslige shared with the 7th true rib. The last 2 ribs are floating ribs, which do not have connectinos on their anterior ends. The joints between ribs are cartilaginous joints. The xiphoid process (not labeled) is the teardrop-shaped bone located just below the sternum. When administering CPR (cardio-pulminary recesitation) it is very important to find this process so as to avoid breaking it off while performing chest compressinons. ...read more.

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